C++代写-CS 564
时间:2021-03-27
CS 564 Programming Project 2
Buffer Manager
INTRODUCTION
The goal of the BadgerDB projects is to allow students in CS 564 to learn about the inter-
nals of a data processing engine. In this assignment, you will build a buffer manager, on
top of an I/O layer that we provide.
Logistics. BadgerDB is coded in C++ and runs on the CS REL machines. Here are a few
logistical points:
• Platform: The stages will be compiled and tested on the CS department’s 64-bit
Ubuntu Linux machines called rockhopper. We will use the latest g++ compiler
on those machines. You are free to develop on other platforms, but you must make
sure that your project works with the official configuration. You can log on to the
rockhopper pool remotely using the machines rockhopper-01.cs.wisc.edu
through rockhopper-09.cs.wisc.edu. You can get more information about
your CS account through the following link: https://apps.cs.wisc.edu/accountapp/.
• Warnings: One of the strengths of C++ is that it does compile time code checking
(consequently reducing run-time errors). Try to take advantage of this by turning
on as many compiler warnings as possible. The Makefile that we will supply will
have -Wall on as default.
• Tools: Always be on the lookout for tools that might simplify your job. Exam-
ple: make for compiling and building your project, makedepend for automatically
generating dependencies, perl for writing test scripts, valgrind for tracking down
memory errors, gdb for debugging, and git/svn for version control. While we will
not explicitly educate you about each of these, feel free to seek the TAs’ advice.
• Software Engineering: A large project such as this requires significant design effort.
Spend some time thinking before you start writing code.
Evaluation. We will run a bunch of our own (private) tests to check your code. So please
develop tests beyond the ones that we give you to stress test your solution. We will also
browse your code to review your coding style and read your Doxygen-generated files.
80% of each project grade is allocated to the correctness test, and 20% for your coding
style and clarity of documenting your code.
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Academic Integrity. You are not allowed to share any code with other students in the
class. Nor will you attempt to use any code from previous offerings of this course. Devi-
ations from this will be punished to the fullest extent possible. We will use a code diffing
program to find cheaters.
THE BADGERDB I/O LAYER
The lowest layer of the BadgerDB database systems is the I/O layer. This layer allows
the upper level of the system to create/destroy files, allocate/deallocate pages within a
file and to read and write pages of a file. This layer consists of two classes: a file (class File)
and a page (class Page) class. These classes use C++ exceptions to handle the occurrence
of any unexpected event.
Implementation of the File class, the Page class, and the exception classes are provided
to you. To start, you can copy BufMgr.tar.gz to your private workspace and expand
this tarball using the following command:
/bin/zcat bufmgr.tar.gz | /bin/tar -xvf -
The code has been adequately commented to help you with understanding how it
does what it does. Please use Doxygen to generate documentation files by running the
command make doc inside the bufmgr directory. The doc files will be generated in the
docs directory. You can now open the docs/index.html file inside a browser and go
through descriptions of classes and their methods to better understand their implemen-
tation.
THE BADGERDB BUFFER MANAGER
A database buffer pool is an array of fixed-sized memory buffers called frames that
are used to hold database pages (also called disk blocks) that have been read from disk
into memory. A page is the unit of transfer between the disk and the buffer pool residing
in main memory. Most modern database systems use a page size of at least 8,192 bytes.
Another important thing to note is that a database page in memory is an exact copy of
the corresponding page on disk when it is first read in. Once a page has been read from
disk to the buffer pool, the DBMS software can update information stored on the page,
causing the copy in the buffer pool to be different from the copy on disk. Such pages are
termed dirty.
Since the database on disk itself is often larger than the amount of main memory that
is available for the buffer pool, only a subset of the database pages fit in memory at any
given time. The buffer manager is used to control which pages to keep in memory. When-
ever the buffer manager receives a request for a data page, it checks to see if the requested
page is already in the one of the frames that constitute the buffer pool. If so, the buffer
manager simply returns a pointer to the page. If not, the buffer manager frees a frame
(possibly writing the page it contains to disk if the page is dirty) and then reads in the
requested page from disk into the frame that has been freed.
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Before reading further, you should first read the documentation that describes the
I/O layer of BadgerDB so that you understand its capabilities (described on the previous
page). In a nutshell, the I/O layer provides an object-oriented interface to the Unix file
with methods to open and close files and to read/write pages of a file. For now, the key
thing you need to know is that opening a file (by passing in a character string name) re-
turns an object of type File. This class has methods to read and write pages of the File.
You will use these methods to move pages between the disk and the buffer pool.
Buffer Replacement Policies and the Clock Algorithm.
There are many ways of deciding which page to replace when a free frame is needed.
Commonly used policies in operating systems are FIFO, MRU, and LRU. Even though
LRU is one of the most commonly used policies, it has high overhead and is not the best
strategy to use in a number of common cases that occur in database systems. Instead,
many systems use the clock algorithm that approximates LRU behavior and is much faster.
Figure 1 shows the conceptual layout of a buffer pool. Figure 2 illustrates the execution
of the clock algorithm.
Figure 1: Structure of the Buffer Manager
In Figure 1, each square box corresponds to a frame in the buffer pool. Assume that
the buffer pool contains numBufs frames, numbered 0 to numBufs− 1. Conceptually, all
the frames in the buffer pool are arranged in a circular list.
Associated with each frame is a bit termed the refbit. Each time a page in the buffer
pool is accessed (via a readPage() call to the buffer manager), the refbit of the correspond-
ing frame is set to true. When the buffer manager needs to replace a page, it starts advanc-
ing the clock hand (an integer whose value is between 0 and numBufs− 1) in a clockwise
direction, using modular arithmetic so that it does not go past numBufs − 1. For each
frame that the clock hand goes past, the refbit is examined and then cleared. If the bit is
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true, the corresponding frame has been referenced “recently” and is not replaced. On the
other hand, if the refbit is false, the page is selected for replacement (assuming it is not
pinned - pinned pages are discussed below). If the selected buffer frame is dirty (i.e. it
has been modified), the page currently occupying the frame is written back to disk. Oth-
erwise, the frame is just cleared and a new page from disk is read in to that location. The
details of the algorithm are given below.
Figure 2: The Clock Replacement Algorithm
The Structure of the Buffer Manager.
The BadgerDB buffer manager uses three C++ classes: BufMgr, BufDesc, and BufHashTbl.
There is only one instance of the BufMgr class. A key component of this class is the actual
buffer pool which consists of an array of numBufs frames, each the size of a database
page. In addition to this array, the BufMgr instance also contains an array of numBufs
instances of the BufDesc class that is used to describe the state of each frame in the buffer
pool. A hash table is used to keep track of the pages that are currently resident in the
buffer pool. This hash table is implemented by an instance of the BufHashTbl class. This
instance is a private data member of the BufMgr class. These classes are described in de-
tail below.
The BufHashTbl Class. The BufHashTbl class is used to map file and page numbers to
buffer pool frames and is implemented using chained bucket hashing. We have provided
an implementation of this class for your use.
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s t r u c t hashBucket {
F i l e ∗ f i l e ; // pointer to a f i l e o b j e c t ( more on t h i s below )
PageId pageNo ; // page number within a f i l e
FrameId frameNo ; // frame number of page in the b u f f e r pool
hashBucket∗ next ; // next bucket in the chain
} ;
Here is the definition of the hash table.
c l a s s BufHashTbl
{
p r i v a t e :
hashBucket∗∗ ht ; // pointer to a c t u a l hash t a b l e
i n t HTSIZE ;
i n t hash ( const F i l e ∗ f i l e , const PageId pageNo ) ; //re turns a value
between 0 and HTSIZE−1
publ ic :
BufHashTbl ( const i n t h t S i z e ) ; // c o n s t r u c t o r
~BufHashTbl ( ) ; // d e s t r u c t o r
// i n s e r t entry i n t o hash t a b l e mapping ( f i l e , pageNo ) to frameNo
void i n s e r t ( const F i l e ∗ f i l e , const i n t pageNo , const i n t frameNo ) ;
// Check i f ( f i l e , pageNo ) i s c u r r e n t l y in the b u f f e r pool ( i e . in
// the hash t a b l e . I f so , re turn the corresponding frame number in frameNo
void lookup ( const F i l e ∗ f i l e , const i n t pageNo , i n t& frameNo ) ;
// remove entry obtained by hashing ( f i l e , pageNo ) from hash t a b l e .
void remove ( const F i l e ∗ f i l e , const i n t pageNo ) ;
} ;
The BufDesc Class. The BufDesc class is used to keep track of the state of each frame in
the buffer pool. It is defined as follows.
First notice that all attributes of the BufDesc class are private and that the BufMgr class
is defined to be a friend. While this may seem strange, this approach restricts access to
BufDesc’s private variables to only the BufMgr class. The alternative (making everything
public) opens up access too far.
The purpose of most of the attributes of the BufDesc class should be pretty obvious.
The dirty bit, if true indicates that the page is dirty (i.e. has been updated) and thus must
be written to disk before the frame is used to hold another page. The pinCnt indicates
how many times the page has been pinned. The refbit is used by the clock algorithm. The
valid bit is used to indicate whether the frame contains a valid page. You do not HAVE
to implement any methods in this class. However you are free to augment it in any way
if you wish to do so.
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c l a s s BufDesc {
f r i e n d c l a s s BufMgr ;
p r i v a t e :
F i l e ∗ f i l e ; // pointer to f i l e o b j e c t
PageId pageNo ; // page within f i l e
FrameId frameNo ; // b u f f e r pool frame number
i n t pinCnt ; // number of t imes t h i s page has been pinned
bool d i r t y ; // true i f d i r t y ; f a l s e otherwise
bool va l id ; // true i f page i s va l id
bool r e f b i t ; // true i f t h i s b u f f e r frame been re ferenced r e c e n t l y
void Clear ( ) ; // i n i t i a l i z e b u f f e r frame
void Set ( F i l e ∗ f i l e P t r , PageId pageNum) ; // s e t BufDesc member v a r i a b l e
values
void P r i n t ( ) // P r i n t values of member v a r i a b l e s
BufDesc ( ) ; //Constructor
} ;
The BufMgr Class. The BufMgr class is the heart of the buffer manager. This is where
you write your code for this assignment.
c l a s s BufMgr
{
p r i v a t e :
FrameId clockHand ; // c lock hand f o r c lock algorithm
BufHashTbl ∗hashTable ; // hash t a b l e mapping ( F i l e , page ) to frame number
BufDesc ∗bufDescTable ; // BufDesc o b j e c t s , one per frame
std : : u i n t 3 2 _ t numBufs ; // Number of frames in the b u f f e r pool
B u f S t a t s b u f S t a t s ; // S t a t i s t i c s about b u f f e r pool usage
// a l l o c a t e a f r e e frame using the c lock algorithm
void a l l o c B u f ( FrameId & frame ) ;
void advanceClock ( ) ; //Advance c lock to next frame in the b u f f e r pool
publ ic :
Page ∗bufPool ; // a c t u a l b u f f e r pool
BufMgr ( std : : u i n t 3 2 _ t bufs ) ; // Constructor
~BufMgr ( ) ; // Destructor
void readPage ( F i l e ∗ f i l e , const PageId PageNo , Page∗& page ) ;
void unPinPage ( F i l e ∗ f i l e , const PageId PageNo , const bool d i r t y ) ;
void al locPage ( F i l e ∗ f i l e , PageId& PageNo , Page∗& page ) ;
void disposePage ( F i l e ∗ f i l e , const PageId pageNo ) ;
void f l u s h F i l e ( const F i l e ∗ f i l e ) ;
} ;
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This class is defined as follows:
BufMgr(const int bufs)
This is the class constructor. Allocates an array for the buffer pool with bufs page frames
and a corresponding BufDesc table. The way things are set up, all frames will be in the
clear state when the buffer pool is allocated. The hash table will also start out in an empty
state. We have provided the constructor.
~BufMgr()
Flushes out all dirty pages and deallocates the buffer pool and the BufDesc table.
void advanceClock()
Advances clock to the next frame in the buffer pool.
void allocBuf(FrameId& frame)
Allocates a free frame using the clock algorithm; if necessary, writing a dirty page back
to disk. Throws BufferExceededException if all buffer frames are pinned. This private
method will get called by the readPage() and allocPage() methods described below. Make
sure that if the buffer frame allocated has a valid page in it, you remove the appropriate
entry from the hash table.
void readPage(File* file, const PageId PageNo, Page*& page)
First check whether the page is already in the buffer pool by invoking the lookup() method,
which may throw HashNotFoundException when page is not in the buffer pool, on the
hashtable to get a frame number. There are two cases to be handled depending on the
outcome of the lookup() call:
• Case 1: Page is not in the buffer pool. Call allocBuf() to allocate a buffer frame and
then call the method file->readPage() to read the page from disk into the buffer pool
frame. Next, insert the page into the hashtable. Finally, invoke Set() on the frame to
set it up properly. Set() will leave the pinCnt for the page set to 1. Return a pointer
to the frame containing the page via the page parameter.
• Case 2: Page is in the buffer pool. In this case set the appropriate refbit, increment
the pinCnt for the page, and then return a pointer to the frame containing the page
via the page parameter.
void unPinPage(File* file, const PageId PageNo, const bool dirty)
Decrements the pinCnt of the frame containing (file, PageNo) and, if dirty == true, sets
the dirty bit. Throws PAGENOTPINNED if the pin count is already 0. Does nothing if
page is not found in the hash table lookup.
void allocPage(File* file, PageId& PageNo, Page*& page)
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The first step in this method is to to allocate an empty page in the specified file by in-
voking the file->allocatePage() method. This method will return a newly allocated page.
Then allocBuf() is called to obtain a buffer pool frame. Next, an entry is inserted into the
hash table and Set() is invoked on the frame to set it up properly. The method returns
both the page number of the newly allocated page to the caller via the pageNo parameter
and a pointer to the buffer frame allocated for the page via the page parameter.
void disposePage(File* file, const PageId pageNo)
This method deletes a particular page from file. Before deleting the page from file, it
makes sure that if the page to be deleted is allocated a frame in the buffer pool, that frame
is freed and correspondingly entry from hash table is also removed.
void flushFile(File* file)
Should scan bufTable for pages belonging to the file. For each page encountered it should:
(a) if the page is dirty, call file->writePage() to flush the page to disk and then set the dirty
bit for the page to false, (b) remove the page from the hashtable (whether the page is clean
or dirty) and (c) invoke the Clear() method of BufDesc for the page frame.
Throws PagePinnedException if some page of the file is pinned. Throws BadBuffer-
Exception if an invalid page belonging to the file is encountered.
GETTING STARTED
When you expand the tarball at BufMgr.tar.gz you will have a directory called
bufmgr. In this directory you will find the following files:
• Makefile : A make file. You can make the project by typing ‘make’.
• main.cpp : Driver file. Shows how to use File and Page classes. Also contains
simple test cases for the Buffer manager. You must augment these tests with your
more rigorous test suite.
• buffer.h : Class definitions for the buffer manager
• buffer.cpp: Skeleton implementation of the methods. Provide your actual imple-
mentation here.
• bufHash.h : Class definitions for the buffer pool hash table class. Do not change.
• bufHash.cpp : Implementation of the buffer pool hash table class. Do not change.
• file.h : Class definitions for the File class. You should not change this file.
• file.cpp : Implementations of the File class. You should not change this file.
• file_iterator.h : Implementation of iterator for pages in a file. Do not change.
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• page.h : Class definition of the page class. Do not change.
• page.cpp : Implementation of the page class. Do not change.
• page_iterator.h: Implementation of iterator for records in a page.
• exceptions directory: Implementation of all your exception classes. Feel free to
add more files here if you need to.
Coding and Testing. We have defined this project so that you can understand and reap
the full benefits of object-oriented programming using C++. Your coding style should
continue this by having well-defined classes and clean interfaces. Reverting to the C
(procedural) style of programming is not recommended and will be penalized. The code
should be well-documented, using Doxygen style comments. Each file should start with
your name and student id, and should explain the purpose of the file. Each function
should be preceded by a few lines of comments describing the function and explaining
the input and output parameters and return values.
DELIVERABLES
You are required to submit a single zipped .zip or .tar.gz archive. Upload the
archive on Canvas under Programming Project 2. The archive should contain only the
source files main.cpp, buffer.h, and buffer.cpp (plus any additional exceptions
you added, if applicable). We will compile your buffer manager, link it with our test
driver and test it. Since we are supposed to be able to test your code with any valid
driver, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO BE FAITHFUL TO THE EXACT DEFINITIONS OF
THE INTERFACES as specified here.
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