c++代写-PHAS0100-Assignment 2
PHAS0100: Research Computing with C++
Assignment 2: Gravitational N-body Simulation

Late Submission Policy: Please be aware of the UCL Late Submission Policy, which is here:

Extenuating Circumstances
The course tutors are not allowed to grant Extenuating Circumstances for late submission. You must
apply though the 2020/21 Extenuating Circumstances form. The Department EC Panel (DECP) will
then decide whether or not to grant extenuating circumstances and email the module lead confirming
that Extenuating Circumstances have been granted and providing a revised submission date.

Assignment Submission
For this coursework assignment, you must submit by uploading a single Zip format archive to Moodle.
You must use only the zip tool, not any other archiver, such as .tgz or .rar. Inside your zip archive, you
must have a single top-level folder, whose folder name is your student number, so that on running
unzip this folder appears. This top-level folder must contain all the parts of your solution. Inside the
top-level folder should be a git repository named PHAS0100Assignment2. All code, images, results
and documentation should be inside this folder and committed to the git repository. You should git
commit your work regularly as the exercise progresses.

You should clone the following repository and use as the starting point for the coursework:

Due to the need to avoid plagiarism, do not use a public GitHub repository for your work - instead, use
git on your local disk (with git commit but not git push), and ensure the hidden .git folder is part of
your zipped archive as otherwise the git history is lost. We will be providing access to a private
GitHub classroom repository that you can use as a remote backup option – there will be a moodle
announcement with details on this. It is important you do not push to a public GitHub repository as
pieces of identical (or suspiciously similar) work will both be treated as plagiarised. Whilst it is fine to
look up definitions and general documentation for C++/libraries online it is not acceptable to use code
taken from the internet or other sources or provided by someone else for the problem solutions. The
exception to this is the initial PHAS0100Assignment2 project that should be used as a starting point for
your project.

We recommend you use Visual Studio Code IDE with the Ubuntu 20.04 docker image for
development. This is not a requirement but if you do use a different setup then you need to ensure
that your code compiles and runs on Ubuntu 20.04 and with g++ 9.3.0 (enforcing C++17) and CMake
3.16.3 as this is the environment the markers will use to test the code.

Marks will be deducted for code that does not compile or run. Marks will also be deducted if code is
poorly formatted. You can choose to follow your own formatting style but it must be applied
consistently. See the Google C++ style guide for a good set of conventions regarding code formatting.

It is important that you follow the file/folder/executable structure given in the notes section of each
question. This is because we will be automating basic checks of the submitted work so if you have not
followed the pre-defined structure those checks will fail and you will lose marks. For a similar reason
you should make sure your unit tests are included when ctest is run by ensuring each new test file
you create has an appropriate add_test entry in

In this assignment you will create a simple gravitational N-body simulation and use it to model the
dynamics of the Solar System. You will then apply the concepts covered in the HPC part of the course
to benchmark and improve the performance of your program using shared memory parallelism and
OpenMP. When designing, writing and testing your code you should continue to put into practice the
material on Modern C++ and Code Quality covered in the first part of the course, including: cmake;
unit testing with catch2; error handling with exceptions; OO-design concepts: encapsulation,
abstraction, inheritance vs composition, dependency injection; avoid using raw pointers; clear code
formatting with effective in-code comments.

Reporting Errors
You can post questions to the Moodle Q&A forum, if you believe that there is a problem with the
example CMake code, or the build process in general. To make error reporting useful, you should
include in your description of the error: error messages, operating system version, compiler version,
and an exact sequence of steps to reproduce the error. Questions regarding the clarity of the
instructions are allowed, but obvious “Please tell me the answer” type questions will be ignored.

Highlighted text is used where a typo/error/clarification has been made following the initial release of
the assignment. When this happens there will also be a moodle announcement.

Important: Read all these instructions before starting coding. In particular, some marks are awarded
for a reasonable git history (as described in Part C), that should show what you were thinking as you
developed. The maximum number of marks available is indicated for each section and question with
grade being a percental out of 75 marks total.

Part A: Solar System Simulator (35 marks)

In this first part of the assignment you will write and test a simple N-body simulator that models the
dynamics of the Solar System.

1. a) First you will create a Particle class that holds a position and velocity, can have an
acceleration applied, and will update its position and velocity when it is stepped through time.
The class should provide at least the following three public methods:

• Eigen::Vector3d getPosition() that returns the current position of the object,
• Eigen::Vector3d getVelocity() that returns the current velocity of the object,
• void integrateTimestep(Eigen::Vector3d acceleration, double timestep)
which updates the position and velocity as though a duration of length timestep has

Consider whether any of these functions or arguments should be const, and if so modify them
to be so.

For acceleration = (, , ) and a timestep the position and velocity vectors =
(, , ) and = (, , ) should be updated according to:
( + ) = () + ()
( + ) = () + ()

b) Write unit tests to confirm that the particle moves as it should when:
a. There is no acceleration =
b. There is a constant acceleration =
c. When a fictitious centripetal acceleration = −() is applied i.e. for a body at
position () the acceleration at time is towards the origin and has magnitude |()|

Hints: When calculating the positions and velocities you should use the Eigen::Vector3d
type that supports vector addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication etc. For this you will need
to #include and examples of how to use can be found here. Eigen also
provides a useful function to compare vectors, given two vectors Eigen::Vector3d v1 and
Eigen::Vector3d v2 you can use the v1.isApprox(v2) to check if they are equal to each
other. There is an optional second argument for isApprox that controls the precision of the
comparison, so v1.isApprox(v2, 0.01)will compare entries with a precision of 0.01.

A simple way to test movement under the fictitious centripetal acceleration is to create a
Particle with position (1, 0, 0) and velocity (0, 1, 0) and confirm that after stepping
through 2‘s worth of time (number of steps * step length) that the particle’s final position and
velocity are close to the initial values. Note that this is not a typical centripetal acceleration but
it will lead to circular motion for the given initial positions.

[5 marks implementation, 5 marks unit tests, 10 marks total]

2. a) Now create a new MassiveParticle class that acts under the effect of gravity. It needs to
move under acceleration like the first class but with the acceleration now being due to its
gravitational attraction to other MassiveParticle’s. This will require the class to have an extra
piece of data, the gravitation parameter = , where is the gravitational constant and is
the mass of the particle. The class should also have a pair of functions to add and remove
instances of the same class. These will define the bodies to which it is being gravitationally
attracted to. Consider whether copies of the other instances should be stored, or whether
pointers should be used, and if so, what type.

The MassiveParticle class should have the following member functions:
• double getMu()which returns the gravitational parameter,
• void addAttractor(std::shared_ptr attractor)to add an
• void removeAttractor(std::shared_ptr attractor)to remove
an attractor,
• void calculateAcceleration()which calculates the gravitational acceleration on this
particle based on the list of attractors and stores the result as a Vector3d data member,
• void integrateTimestep(const double& timestep)which updates the position and
velocity as though a duration of length timestep has passed.

Again, consider the const ness of these functions and arguments, and apply the const
modifier to any that would benefit.

The class should implement the same equations of motion as the Particle class, with the
acceleration now being calculated in the MassiveParticle’s calculateAcceleration by
summing the gravitational attraction from all the bodies included with the addAttractor
function. Given the position for the current body and of for attractor , the total
acceleration should be:

= ∑

2 ̂, where ̂ is the normalised = −
where the sum over is over all attractors added to the body.

The result of calculateAcceleration should be stored as a data member in
MassiveParticle and should be used as the acceleration term in the MassiveParticle
::integrateTimestep definition. N.B. it is important for the Part B OpenMP parallelisation that
a user of the class needs to first call calculateAcceleration and then integrateTimestep
as two separate steps i.e. don’t include calculateAcceleration inside the definition of

b) Test that the new class:
a. Still models linear motion correctly i.e. that a single MassiveParticle with no
attractors will travel with a constant velocity
b. Will allow two bodies to gravitationally attract each other. To test this, create two
bodies with = 1, and add each to the other as an attractor. Use the following initial
conditions = (1, 0, 0), = (0, 0.5, 0), = (−1, 0, 0), = (0, −0.5, 0). Then test
that the two bodies remain at a distance of approximately 2 over a full orbit.

Hints: note that the new MassiveParticle class needs to model acceleration like the
Particle class but its void MassiveParticle::integrateTimestep function does not
require an acceleration argument as the acceleration is now calculated based on the
gravitational attraction to the list of attractors. Consider how you might reuse the behavior of
the Particle class, is it more appropriate to use inheritance or composition.

[6 marks implementation, 4 marks unit tests, 10 marks total]

3. Using the MassiveParticle class you developed you will now build an application to model
the motion of the Sun and planets in the Solar System:
a. Create a command line app that can be run as ./bin/solarSystemSimulator
from the build directory. It should have arguments to control the step-size and the
length of time (or number of timesteps) to simulate.
[3 marks]
b. The command line app should print a useful help message to tell the user what
arguments to use if the -h or –help switch is used. With zero command line
arguments, the program should not crash, and should respond with the help message.
[1 marks]
c. First the application should create a set of MassiveParticle‘s corresponding to the
major bodies (the Sun plus 8 planets) within the Solar System and with appropriate
initial conditions. The initial positions, velocities and values for of the Solar System
bodies are based on the epoch of 2021-01-0T00:00:00Z and are provided in
[3 marks]
d. For each MassiveParticle representing a solar system body add all other
MassiveParticle bodies to their list of attractors i.e. make each body feel the
gravitational attraction of all other bodies.
[2 marks]
e. Next you need to implement the evolution of the solar system with time. To do this you
should create an outer loop to loop over timesteps. Then within this loop there should
be two separate for loops, each looping over all of the Solar System bodies:
i. In the first for loop the code should call the
MassiveParticle::calculateAcceleration method to update the
gravitational accelerations for all bodies given their current positions.
ii. Then in the second for loop where the position and velocity of each body is
updated using their MassiveParticle::integrateTimestep method.
[3 marks]
f. Add appropriate messages to screen summarising the position of the solar system
bodies at the start and end of the simulation. Use a timestep of 0.000274 years (this is
~0.1 days) and then run the program for 1 year of simulated time.
[3 marks]

To demonstrate f. you should take a screengrab of the output showing the final
positions of each body and commit before submitting.


You can use basic C++ command line parsing:
Or you could try integrating a command line parser such as:
https://github.com/CLIUtils/CLI11(which is header only).

To access the Solar System data you can #include “nbsimSolarSystemData.ipp” in the
main app or the code where you need it. An example of how you can access the contents of
the array is:

int ibody = 0;
std::cout << nbsim::solarSystemData[ibody].name << std::endl;
std::cout << nbsim::solarSystemData[ibody].mu << std::endl;
std::cout << nbsim::solarSystemData[ibody].position << std::endl;
std::cout << nbsim::solarSystemData[ibody].velocity << std::endl;

Range based for loops will also work.

Here is some example pseudo-code to demonstrate the required loop structure to evolve the
Solar System bodies:
// outer loop over time
for(loop over timesteps)
// one for loop to calculate accelerations
for(loop over all bodies)
// call each body’s calculateAcceleration

// then a second for loop to update positions and velocities
for(loop over all bodies)
// call each body’s integrateTimestep

[a-f, 15 marks total]

Part B: Improving the Simulation (20 marks)

In this part of the assignment you will quantify the accuracy of the simulation and benchmark its
performance using timers. You will then improve the performance of the simulation using OpenMP to
parallelise the relevant parts.

4. The simplistic dynamics of the class means that the simulation doesn't conserve energy or
momentum very well without a very short time step. To quantify this you should calculate two
a. The centre of mass vector of the system given by:


where and are the position and gravitation parameter of the i’th body
respectively, the loops over are over all solar system bodies and the denominator
proportional to the total mass of the system,

b. and the total linear momentum vector of the system , given by:

= ∑

Where is the velocity of the i’th body of each body.

You should write code to calculate and and output it to screen as the simulation
evolves. Based on the initial conditions provided in nbsimSolarSystemData.ipp both vectors
should be close to null i.e. (0,0,0) and stay constant as a function of time.

A note on units: in the above we use μ instead of mass when calculating the centre of mass
and momentum. In the case of the centre of mass the result is unchanged as the constant
factor appears in both the numerator and the denominator. The momentum definition is the
same up to a constant factor so it is suitable for tracking how momentum is conserved.

[5 marks total]

5. Next you should benchmark the runtime of your code using
std::chrono::high_resolution_clock and std::clock, see the example here:

Benchmark the time it takes your simulation to run for 1 year’s worth of simulated time and for
a number of different timestep sizes (5-10 different values is fine). Give a summary of the
results, including the final value of and at the end of the simulation, in the
README.md file. Based on these choose a value of timestep that is a good balance between
simulation run time (a few minutes is reasonable) and accuracy and document in the

N.B. when doing this you do not want to the benchmarking time to be dominated my many
std::cout’s so you should only have a way to toggle on/off all cout’s except for at the start
and end of the loop over time. Consider using using pre-processor directives to toggle on/off
the std::cout’s, you could even link these to the -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_DEBUG=Debug cmake
build type.
[5 marks total]

6. a. Next you should OpenMP to parallelise your simulation to improve its performance.
Think carefully about which parts of the simulation can be parallelised. For example, the outer
loop over time cannot be parallelised as each subsequent timestep depends on the output of
the previous timestep. Also, it is important that within each timestep the loop over bodies to
calculate forces needs to be completed for all bodies before the subsequent loop over bodies
to update their position and velocities starts.
[7 marks]
b. For the timestep you chose in section 5. benchmark again with respect to the number of
threads using the OMP_NUM_THREAD environment variable to set the number of
threads. Provide a summary in the README.md of benchmarking results before/after
[3 marks]

N.B. marks will be based on the implementation of parallelisation and the ability to benchmark
and not on actual performance achieved so you will not be penalised for having a machine
with a low number of cores. You should still increase OMP_NUM_THREAD above the number
of cores on your machine and summarise the results. If using docker you can increase the
number of cores docker has access to through the docker desktop application under: settings -
> resources -> CPUs.

[10 marks total]

Part C: Additional Considerations (15 marks)
1. Application of Object Oriented design principles such as abstraction and encapsulation,
inheritance vs composition, dependency injection and factory method.
[5 marks]

2. Nice git commit log.
[3 marks]

3. Clear code formatting and effective in-code commenting.
[4 marks]

4. Update the front page README.md to give clear build instructions, and instructions for use.

[3 marks]