The University of Melbourne
School of Computing and Information Systems
COMP30027 Machine Learning, 2021 Semester 1
Project 1: Pose classification with naı¨ve Bayes
Due: 7 pm, 12 April 2021
Submission: Source code (in Python) and written responses
Groups: You may choose to form a group of 1 or 2.
Groups of 2 will respond to more questions, and commensurately produce more
Marks: The project will be marked out of 16 points (individual project) or 24 points
(group project). In either case, this project will contribute 20% of your total
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Example instances from the yoga pose classification dataset
Human pose recognition, and related tasks like gesture recognition and action recognition, are impor-
tant tasks for AI systems that interact with people. There are many algorithms for classifying pose;
for example, deep convolutional neural networks can be trained to classify pose directly from images.
However, these methods tend to be “black boxes” and it’s difficult to understand what features they
are using. Another approach, which we will use in this Project, uses neural networks to first identify
keypoints corresponding to the main parts of the body (as shown above), and then learns to recognize
pose based on the positions of these body parts.
In this project, you will implement a supervised naı¨ve Bayes learner to classify pose from key-
points provided by a deep convolutional neural network. You will train, test, and evaluate your clas-
sifier on a provided dataset, and then you will have a choice of either extending this basic model in
various ways, or using it to answer some conceptual questions about naı¨ve Bayes.
Naive Bayes classifier
There are some suggestions for implementing your learner in the “Naı¨ve Bayes” and “Discrete &
Continuous Data” lectures, but ultimately, the specifics of your implementation are up to you. Your
implementation must be able to perform the following functions:
• preprocess() the data by reading it from a file and converting it into a useful format for
training and testing
• train() by calculating prior probabilities and likelihoods from the training data and using
these to build a naive Bayes model
• predict() classes for new items in a test dataset
• evaluate() the prediction performance by comparing your model’s class outputs to ground
truth labels
Your implementation should be able to handle numeric attributes and it should assume that nu-
meric attributes are Gaussian-distributed. Your model will not be expected to handle nominal at-
tributes. Your implementation should actually compute the priors, likelihoods, and posterior probabil-
ities for the naı¨ve Bayes model and not simply call an existing implementation such as GaussianNB
from scikit-learn.
Keypoint diagram
The data for this assignment is drawn from a yoga pose classification
dataset created by Anastasia Marchenkova and released online here.
Separate training and test datasets are provided; please report your
results on the provided test set.
The pose keypoints were produced by a computer vision algo-
rithm based on OpenPose. The algorithm identifies 11 keypoints on
the body and returns their x and y values. The data is provided as a
csv file; the first column is the name of the yoga pose and the remain-
ing columns are the keypoints (11 x values followed by 11 y values).
The body parts represented by each of the 11 keypoints are shown to
the right.
Since the keypoint data was generated by a computer vision al-
gorithm, it may contain some errors. Some instances have missing
keypoints because a part of the body was not visible in the original
image or the algorithm failed to detect it. Missing keypoints have x
and y values of 9999.
Implementation tips
In the training phase of your algorithm, you will need to set up data structures to hold the prior
probabilities for each class, and the likelihoods P (xi|cj) for each attribute xi in each class cj . Recall
that you will need two parameters (mean and standard deviation) to define the Gaussian distribution
for each attribute × class. A 2D array may be a convenient data structure to store these parameters.
Multiplying many probabilities in the range (0, 1] can result in very low values and lead to under-
flow (numbers smaller than the computer can represent). When implementing a naı¨ve Bayes model, it
is strongly recommended to take the log() of each probability and sum them instead of multiplying.
E.g., instead of computing:
P (cj)

P (xi|cj) (1)
log(P (cj)) +

log(P (xi|cj)) (2)
The following problems are designed to pique your curiosity when running your classifier(s) over the
given dataset and suggest methods for improving or extending the basic model.
1. Since this is a multiclass classification problem, there are multiple ways to compute precision,
recall, and F-score for this classifier. Implement at least two of the methods for computing mul-
ticlass precision and recall from the “Model Evaluation” lecture slide 37 (e.g., macro-averaging)
and discuss any differences between them. (The implementation should be your own and should
not just call a pre-existing function.)
2. The Gaussian naı¨ve Bayes classifier assumes that numeric attributes come from a Gaussian dis-
tribution. Is this assumption always true for the numeric attributes in this dataset? Identify some
cases where the Gaussian assumption is violated and describe any evidence (or lack thereof) that
this has some effect on the NB classifier’s predictions.
3. Implement a kernel density estimate (KDE) naı¨ve Bayes classifier and compare its performance
to the Gaussian naı¨ve Bayes classifier. Recall that KDE has kernel bandwidth as a free param-
eter – you can choose an arbitrary value for this, but a value in the range 5-25 is recommended.
Discuss any differences you observe between the Gaussian and KDE naı¨ve Bayes classifiers.
(As with the Gaussian naı¨ve Bayes, this KDE naı¨ve Bayes implementation should be your own
and should not just call a pre-existing function.)
4. Instead of using an arbitrary kernel bandwidth for the KDE naı¨ve Bayes classifier, use random
hold-out or cross-validation to choose the kernel bandwidth. Discuss how this changes the
model performance compared to using an arbitrary kernel bandwidth.
5. Naı¨ve Bayes ignores missing values, but in pose recognition tasks the missing values can be
informative. Missing values indicate that some part of the body was obscured and sometimes
this is relevant to the pose (e.g., holding one hand behind the back). Are missing values useful
for this task? Implement a method that incorporates information about missing values and
demonstrate whether it changes the classification results.
6. Engineer your own pose features from the provided keypoints. Instead of using the (x,y) posi-
tions of keypoints, you might consider the angles of the limbs or body, or the distances between
pairs of keypoints. How does a naı¨ve Bayes classifier based on your engineered features com-
pare to the classifier using (x,y) values? Please note that we are interested in explainable features
for pose recognition, so simply putting the (x,y) values in a neural network or similar to get an
arbitrary embedding will not receive full credit for this question. You should be able to explain
the rationale behind your proposed features. Also, don’t forget the conditional independence as-
sumption of naı¨ve Bayes when proposing new features – a large set of highly-correlated features
may not work well.
If you are in a group of 1, you will respond to two questions of your choosing (two responses in
total). If you are in a group of 2, you will respond to four questions of your choosing (four responses
in total). A response to a question should take about 150–250 words, and make reference to the data
wherever possible. We strongly recommend including figures or tables to support your responses.
Submission will be made via the LMS. Please submit your code and written report separately:
• Your code submission should be a .zip or .tar.gz file which includes your code, results files,
and any additional files we would need to run your code and replicate your results. (You don’t
need to include the dataset that we provided, but if you created separate train/validation sets
you should include those or provide the code to recreate your train/validation splits.) Please
also include a README file that tells us how to run your code and recreate your results.
• Your written report should be uploaded separately as a .pdf, using the Turnitin submission link.
If you are working in a group, please include both group members’ student id numbers on the
written report and in your code file (in the README file or a group.txt file).
Late submission
The submission mechanism will stay open for one week after the submission deadline. Late submis-
sions will be penalised at 10% per 24-hour period after the original deadline. Submissions will be
closed 7 days (168 hours) after the published assignment deadline, and no further submissions will be
accepted after this point.
8 of the marks available for this assignment will be based on the implementation of the naı¨ve Bayes
classifier, specifically the four Python functions specified above. Any other functions you’ve im-
plemented will not be directly assessed, unless they are required to make these four functions work
Each question is worth 4 marks. We will be looking for evidence that you have an implementation
that allows you to explore the problem, but also that you have thought deeply about the data and the
behaviour of the relevant classifier(s).
Because the number of questions depends on the group size, individual projects can receive a
total of 16 marks and group projects can receive a total of 24 marks. In both cases, the project will
contribute 20% of the final mark in this subject. In group projects, both members of the group will
receive the same mark.
Updates to the assignment specifications
If any changes or clarifications are made to the project specification, these will be posted on the LMS.
Academic misconduct
You are welcome — indeed encouraged — to collaborate with your peers in terms of the conceptual-
isation and framing of the problem. For example, we encourage you to discuss what the assignment
specification is asking you to do, or what you would need to implement to be able to respond to a
However, sharing materials beyond your group — for example, plagiarising code or colluding in
writing responses to questions — will be considered cheating. We will invoke University’s Academic
Misconduct policy ( where
inappropriate levels of plagiarism or collusion are deemed to have taken place.