java代写-CSC 413
San Francisco State University
CSC 413: Software Development
Dawson Zhou (
Term Project
The goal of the term project is to apply design principles we’ve learned throughout the
semester to develop a simple video game with a focus on extensibility.
The term project is due on Friday, May 21, 2021 at 11:59 pm PT. There will be no late
submissions accepted for the term project.
Part 1 of the project will be graded based on whatever is submitted by Tuesday, May 4, 2021 at
11:59 pm PT. See Part 1 Requirements below for more details.
100 pts total:
● 10 pts: Part 1 submission
● 5 pts: Game control
○ 3 pts: Must transition the game to show the end menu screen if:
■ Escape key is pressed while on the run game screen
■ Player tank is destroyed
■ All AI tanks are destroyed
○ 2 pts: Restarting from the end menu screen starts a fresh new game
● 42 pts: Model elements for game entities
○ 2 pts: Supports a player tank that moves based on keyboard input
○ 8 pts: Implements at least 2 different types of AI tanks with support for multiple
tanks in the game at once with separate tank movement logic
■ At least one of the AI tank types must determine its behavior on the
GameWorld, e.g. where the player is, where other tanks are, where shells
on the screen are, etc.
○ 4 pts: Bounds checking on tanks to prevent them from moving offscreen
○ 10 pts: Allows the player tank and the AI tanks to fire shells
○ 5 pts: Walls added to the game
○ 5 pts: Tanks and walls track their “health”, and are destroyed after taking too
many hits from shells
○ 8 pts: Entity classes share code between player tank, AI tanks, shells, and walls
● 18 pts: Collision detection and handling
○ 6 pts: Collisions are correctly detected
○ 12 pts: Collisions are correctly handled
● 15 pts: Additional features (see Extra Features below)
● 10 pts: Miscellaneous (model and view code kept separate, various style issues, etc.)
● (extra credit) 10 pts: Extra credit for additional features beyond the initial 15 points (see
Extra Features below)
Assignment Setup
Click on the GitHub Classroom link provided on iLearn to automatically create your GitHub
repository for the assignment, which will include the starter code for the project.
See the “Git, GitHub, and IntelliJ Setup Guide” document for instructions on setting up the rest
of the project on your local machine. In addition to those instructions, you’ll also need to
indicate to IntelliJ that there are images in the “resources” folder. You can do so by right-clicking
the “resources” directory in the project navigation panel on the left and selecting “Mark
Directory as” > “Resources Root”, as shown below.

Detailed Requirements
Part 1 Requirements
Part 1 is due by Tuesday, May 4, 2021 at 11:59 pm PT. In order to receive full credit for Part 1,
you must submit the following features to your GitHub repository:
● A player tank and an AI tank show on the screen at the same time.
● The player tank moves based on keyboard input.
● The player tank shoots shells in response to keyboard input.
● The AI tank moves according to some logic, independent of the player tank.
See the next few sections for details on how to approach implementing these features.
You don’t need for these features to be working perfectly by the Part 1 deadline to receive full
credit, but you must show a good faith effort in your attempt. Please note that you will only
receive credit for Part 1 if you commit your change(s) and push them to GitHub.
Understanding the Starter Code
The first major step to tackling the project is to spend some time reading over the provided
starter code to understand what is already implemented, and what classes you’ll need to
interact with.
The classes provided include the following:
● The controller of our game. This is where the main method is defined
as the entry point of the program. GameDriver defines the gameplay loop which drives
the game. You are responsible for implementing the setUpGame, updateGame, and
resetGame methods.
● The class responsible for understanding keyboard input. The
KeyboardReader is provided to you as a singleton class. You can ask its instance if a key
is currently being pressed. You won’t need to modify this class, unless you decide to add
an extra feature that requires additional key input.
● A convenient way to package information you need about walls.
See Walls below for more details on how to use the class.
● Various useful constant values.
● model/ A basic version of a model class that can be used to represent tanks.
You will need to add classes for other entity types, and find ways to reduce code
duplication between them.
● model/ The class tracking all entities present in the game world. You
will be defining and implementing methods so that any other code in the project which
needs to access the various entities in the game world can do so.
● view/ The view class that you’ll be interacting with to draw images
on screen. You won’t need to modify this class, but you will be calling its various public
● view/: Other classes controlling the UI aspects of the game. This code is
provided to you, and won’t need to be modified.
Every entity in the game will have two aspects to its representation: the model object, and the
view sprite. The model object will be defined by a class in the edu.csc413.tankgame.model
package, and the corresponding sprite in the view will share its String id.
To start with, focus on adding two tanks to the game. The GameWorld will track the tank model
objects, while the RunGameView will track their corresponding sprites. Once you’re able to
display the two tanks on screen, work on implementing movement logic: one as a player tank
responding to keyboard input, and one as an AI tank determining its own movement logic.
See Lecture 24 for more details.
Once you have tanks moving around on screen, you can add the ability for tanks to fire shells.
There are a few key observations that will help us determine how to add shells:
● Player tanks fire shells based on keyboard input (when the spacebar is pressed), while AI
tanks fire shells based on their movement logic.
● When a shell is created, its starting position and angle are based on the tank that fired it.
● A shell moves in a straight line, maintaining a constant angle, until it goes off screen.
A design that suits all of the requirements is to define a Shell class for shell entities which
tracks their position and angle. A shell can move each iteration of the gameplay loop, just like a
tank, so you will want to find a way to share code between the two -- I strongly recommend
defining an abstract Entity class which contains code common to both.
When a tank shoots a shell, a Shell object needs to be created and added to the GameWorld.
Since tanks determine when to shoot shells in their .move(...) methods, they will need to
have access to the GameWorld so they can create and add the Shell. Keep this in mind when
implementing the .move(...) method for entities: you will need to pass the GameWorld in as a
There’s an additional problem when a shell is fired -- even once we’ve found a way to add the
new Shell entity to the GameWorld, it won’t have a corresponding sprite added to the
RunGameView, so we won’t see its image on screen. We don’t want the tank .move(...) logic
to be responsible for adding the sprite as well, because it violates the Separation of Concerns
principle: model logic shouldn’t be directly dealing with view logic. What we can instead do is
record in the GameWorld that there is a brand new Shell entity, and a corresponding sprite
needs to be added as well. After all existing entities are done moving, the main gameplay loop
in GameDriver can then add the corresponding sprites for all of those new shells.
See Lecture 25 for more details.
GameWorld Aware AI Tank Logic
You are required to have at least two different types of AI tanks, with both being on screen at
the same time. At least one of those AI types must base its .move(...) logic on information
about the GameWorld, such as the player’s current location.
The following is some logic I used during in-class demos that will cause an AI tank to always be
turning so that they face the player tank. You may feel free to use this code within your
.move(...) logic for a GameWorld aware AI tank.
Entity playerTank = gameState.getEntity(Constants.PLAYER_TANK_ID);
// To figure out what angle the AI tank needs to face, we'll use the
// change in the x and y axes between the AI and player tanks.
double dx = playerTank.getX() - getX();
double dy = playerTank.getY() - getY();
// atan2 applies arctangent to the ratio of the two provided values.
double angleToPlayer = Math.atan2(dy, dx);
double angleDifference = getAngle() - angleToPlayer;
// We want to keep the angle difference between -180 degrees and 180
// degrees for the next step. This ensures that anything outside of
// range is adjusted by 360 degrees at a time until it is, so that the
// angle is still equivalent.
angleDifference -=
Math.floor(angleDifference / Math.toRadians(360.0) + 0.5)
* Math.toRadians(360.0);
// The angle difference being positive or negative determines if we
// left or right. However, we don’t want the Tank to be constantly
// bouncing back and forth around 0 degrees, alternating between left
// and right turns, so we build in a small margin of error.
if (angleDifference < -Math.toRadians(3.0)) {
} else if (angleDifference > Math.toRadians(3.0)) {
If you do use the above code in your implementation of an AI tank, you must add some
additional movement logic of your own to receive full credit.
Bounds Checking
We need bounds checking to deal with tanks and shells going off screen. It’s fairly
straightforward to determine if an entity is off-screen -- we just check if its x coordinate is less
than the minimum x allowed or greater than the maximum x allowed for that entity, and
likewise for its y coordinate.
The minimum and maximum x and y values allowed are provided for tanks and for shells in the
Constants class. The type of entity determines what should happen next if the entity is found
to be off-screen.
● A tank that is off-screen should have its location updated so that it is back on-screen.
○ If the x coordinate is less than Constants.TANK_X_LOWER_BOUND, it should be
set to Constants.TANK_X_LOWER_BOUND.
○ If the x coordinate is greater than Constants.TANK_X_UPPER_BOUND, it should
be set to Constants.TANK_X_UPPER_BOUND.
○ If the y coordinate is less than Constants.TANK_Y_LOWER_BOUND, it should be
set to Constants.TANK_Y_LOWER_BOUND.
○ If the y coordinate is greater than Constants.TANK_Y_UPPER_BOUND, it should
be set to Constants.TANK_Y_UPPER_BOUND.
● A shell that is off-screen should be removed from the GameWorld.
○ To receive full credit, the shell’s corresponding sprite must also be removed from
the RunGameView. To do this, when you remove the shell from the GameWorld,
you’ll need to “remember” it later on so that you can also remove its sprite from
the RunGameView.
○ Tracking which shells need to be removed can also make it simpler to add
animations such as a small shell explosion to the RunGameView when the shell is
Limiting Shells
If you’ve implemented support for tanks shooting shells, but without any limits, you may have
noticed that tanks will fire a huge number of shells in a stream -- a feature that looks fun, but is
not particularly good for a playable game. You’ll need to add a limit so that tanks are not able to
fire a shell on every single iteration of the gameplay loop.
There are a number of potential approaches here. Here are two simple suggestions:
● A tank must wait 200 (as an example) iterations since the last time it fired a shell before
it can shoot again. You can track this by storing a “cooldown” integer which starts at 200
and is decremented for each call to .move(...) until it hits 0, at which point it can
shoot again. When a shell is fired, the cooldown is reset to 200.
● Each tank can only have one shell on screen at a time. You’ll need to implement a way to
track existing shells for a tank to determine if the tank is allowed to shoot.
If you have designed your Tank and Shell classes to share code, adding walls should be fairly
straightforward -- it’s just another game entity with a location and an angle (always zero
degrees), and it doesn’t do anything when asked to move, turn, or check bounds. Walls will also
be involved in collision detection like other entity types.
I’ve provided a file in the starter project, which reads from a walls.txt file
in the “resources” folder. The walls.txt file treats the game world as a grid of integers, with each
integer indicating if there should be a wall at that location, and if there is, what that wall should
look like. WallInformation has a static method, .readWalls(), which will read the text file in
and convert it to a List representing all of the walls that need to be added
to the game. Each individual WallInformation in the list will have an associated image file
name, accessible via .getImageFile(), and x and y coordinates for the wall.
You will be responsible for creating a new class to represent wall entities in the game model,
similar to tanks and shells. Walls should also have a unique ID, a location, and an angle of 0.
Collision Detection
A major step in adding depth to your game is supporting collision detection between game
entities. Collision detection will prevent tanks from driving through each other and through
walls, and will allow shells to interact with the environment rather than passing through
The first step for supporting collisions is determining which pairs of entities are “colliding” at
every step of the game. This can be made simpler by treating every entity as a rectangle
oriented along the x and y axes, rather than taking the exact entity shape and rotation into
account. It isn’t as accurate as using the entity’s exact geometry, but it is much simpler to
implement and very efficient to run.
The entity’s rectangle stretches from the entity’s (x, y) location in its top left corner to its
bottom right corner. We’ll call this the bounding box. For example, consider the following tank:
In this example, the tank is located at x: 30, y: 20 with a width of 55 and a height of 55. That
means that its x bound (i.e. the right side of the bounding box) is at x: 85, and its y bound (i.e.
the bottom side of the bounding box) is at y: 75.
If we have the bounding boxes for two entities, we can determine if they’re colliding by asking
the inverse: how would we check that they’re not colliding? To answer that, we look at the x
axis and y axis separately.
● If the first box’s left side is to the right of the second box’s right side OR
● If the first box’s right side is to the left of the second box’s left side
...then the two boxes are not overlapping at any point along the x axis.
● If the first box’s top side is below the second box’s bottom side OR
● If the first box’s bottom side is above the second box’s top side
...then the two boxes are not overlapping at any point along the y axis.
If any of the conditions above is true, then the two bounding boxes do not overlap. Otherwise,
they do. Translated to x coordinates, x bounds, y coordinates, and y bounds, we check if:
● First box’s x coordinate > second box’s x bound OR
● First box’s x bound < second box’s x coordinate OR
● First box’s y coordinate > second box’s y bound OR
● First box’s y bound < second box’s y coordinate
Any of these being true implies that the boxes do not overlap.
I would suggest adding support for your Entity class to return the x bound and y bound with
methods such as .getXBound() and .getYBound(). These are dependent on the width and
height of each entity, which are represented in For example, a tank’s
.getXBound() should then return getX() + Constants.TANK_WIDTH. With each entity type
defining .getXBound() and .getYBound(), we can define a method .entitiesOverlap()
which takes in two Entity objects as parameters and returns the result of the following:
● First entity’s x coordinate < second entity’s x bound AND
● First entity’s x bound > second entity’s x coordinate AND
● First entity’s y coordinate < second entity’s y bound AND
● First entity’s y bound > second entity’s y coordinate.
Note that this is inverted from the check above, since we want the method to return true if the
two entities do overlap.
Once you have implemented the logic for determining if a pair of entities is colliding, you can
apply that method to every single pair of entities in the GameWorld. Be careful on how you
approach this -- a sensible idea is to iterate through each pair is to use a for loop within a for
loop, but doing so will also lead self collisions (each entity “colliding” with itself) and duplicate
collisions (we handle entity A colliding with entity B, and then we handle entity B colliding with
entity A again). You’ll need to skip those cases.
Collision Handling
Once we’ve detected that a pair of entities has collided, we need to determine how to handle
the collision based on the entities’ types. The different potential scenarios include:
● A tank colliding with a tank
● A shell colliding with a shell
● A shell colliding with a tank
● A tank colliding with a wall
● A shell colliding with a wall
You can check which scenario occurred using instanceof:
private void handleCollision(Entity entity1, Entity entity2) {
if (entity1 instanceof Tank && entity2 instanceof Tank) {
// ...
} else if (entity1 instanceof Tank && entity2 instanceof Shell) {
// ...
} else if (entity1 instanceof Shell && entity2 instanceof Tank) {
// ...
A Tank Colliding with a Tank
When two tanks collide, we need to update both their locations so that they don’t overlap, as
we don’t want to allow the tanks to pass through one another. Let’s label the tanks as Tank A
and Tank B.
The approach we’ll take is to determine which axis (x or y) and direction the tanks should move
that minimizes their move distance. For the smoothest and most predictable result, we’ll have
both tanks move an equal distance in opposite directions.
To determine the axis of movement, let’s pretend for a moment that Tank B will be anchored in
place while Tank A does all the moving. In that case, the four possible moves are:
1. Tank A moves to the left until the tanks no longer overlap along the x axis. Tank A’s right
side (x bound) must be less than Tank B’s left side (x coordinate). The distance of
movement is tankA.getXBound() - tankB.getX().
2. Tank A moves to the right until the tanks no longer overlap along the x axis. Tank A’s left
side (x coordinate) must be greater than Tank B’s right side (x bound). The distance of
movement is tankB.getXBound() - tankA.getX().
3. Tank A moves upward until the tanks no longer overlap along the y axis. Tank A’s bottom
side (y bound) must be less than Tank B’s top side (y coordinate). The distance of
movement is tankA.getYBound() - tankB.getY().
4. Tank A moves downward until the tanks no longer overlap along the y axis. Tank A’s top
side (y coordinate) must be greater than Tank B’s bottom side (y bound). The distance of
movement is tankB.getYBound() - tankA.getY().
Calculate each of these four distances. The shortest of these four distances determines how we
then adjust the two tanks:
1. If tankA.getXBound() - tankB.getX() is the smallest distance, then we move Tank A
to the left by half that distance and Tank B to the right by half that distance.
2. If tankB.getXBound() - tankA.getX() is the smallest distance, then we move Tank A
to the right by half that distance and Tank B to the left by half that distance.
3. If tankA.getYBound() - tankB.getY() is the smallest distance, then we move Tank A
upward by half that distance and Tank B downward by half that distance.
4. If tankB.getYBound() - tankA.getY() is the smallest distance, then we move Tank A
downward by half that distance and Tank B upward by half that distance.
Remember that to move a tank to the left, we subtract from its x coordinate; to move a tank to
the right, we add to its x coordinate; to move a tank upward, we subtract from its y coordinate;
and to move a tank downward, we add to its y coordinate.
A Shell Colliding with a Shell
Handling collision between shells is much simpler. They both get removed from the game.
Remember to apply the same approach you did for removing shells when bounds checking so
that their corresponding images are also removed from the RunGameView.
A Shell Colliding with a Tank
When a shell collides with a tank, the shell should be removed and the tank should lose a health
point. To properly implement this, you’ll need to add the ability for tanks (as well as walls; see
below) to track how many health points they have remaining. If that value reaches zero, then
the tank should also be removed from the game. If that tank happens to be the player tank, or
the last AI tank, then the game should be considered over, and should transition to the end
menu screen.
A Tank Colliding with a Wall
The logic for handling a tank colliding with a wall is very similar to the logic described above for
a tank colliding with another tank. The difference is that only the tank will be moved the full
distance needed so that they are no longer overlapping; the wall should never move.
You can calculate the same four distances (tank moving to the left, tank moving to the right,
tank moving upward, and tank moving downward), pick the smallest one, and move the tank in
that direction by the full distance (instead of moving both entities half of the distance).
A Shell Colliding with a Wall
Destructible environments are interesting! You can implement a basic version of this with your
collision handling logic when a shell hits a wall. The shell should be removed, and the wall
should lose a health point. Walls will need to track their total health points just like tanks, and
when a wall runs out of health points, it should be removed from the game.
Extra Features
To get full credit for the assignment, you’ll need to add some extra features to the game. I’ve
provided a number of ideas below; if you have your own ideas, feel free to incorporate them
into the game!
Extra features will be categorized as:
● small: worth 3 points
● medium: worth 6 points
● large: worth 10 points
If you add your own feature not listed below, feel free to reach out to me, and I can let you
know if it would be counted as a small, medium, or large feature.
To receive full credit, you will need to pick and choose features totalling 15 points. If you
implement more than that, you can get up to 10 additional points of extra credit.
Complex AI Logic (medium)
Add a complex AI tank that involves awareness of the game world in determining its move
behavior. You’ll need to add something beyond what I provided in this handout, but feel free to
build upon that idea. Some ideas:
● AI tank that “leads” the player tank by pointing and shooting shells not directly at but
some distance in front of the player tank. It should take into account how far away the
player tank is, and what direction it’s moving.
● AI tank that avoids shells by finding the nearest shell heading towards it in the game
world, turning perpendicular to its current direction, and moving forward/backward to
get out of its path.
Power Ups (small or medium)
Add power up items to the game that the player tank can pick up. I’ve provided an image asset
for a power up icon you can display in game. Here are some ideas:
● If the player tank collides with the power up, you can treat that “collision” as the player
picking it up. The result of that collision can modify the player tank’s state to change
some aspect of its behavior.
● If the modification is something simple, like increasing tank speed, increasing rate of fire,
etc., this will be counted as a small extra feature.
● If the modification is more complex, like changing the behavior of shells fired (like
implementing a HomingShell as a subclass of Shell which turns and tracks a target
tank), this will be counted as a medium extra feature.
Better Collision Detection (medium)
The collision detection algorithm described above is a brute-force approach. We look at every
single pair of entities and check if they overlap, even if two entities have no possible way of
overlapping. This can potentially be very inefficient as the number of entities in the game
increases (e.g. as we add walls, more tanks, more shells, etc.).
There are ways to implement a more efficient collision detection algorithm. One simple example
would be to split the entire game world into a grid of boxes, each being e.g. 100 pixels by 100
pixels. Every entity is located in anywhere from 1 to 4 of these boxes. In order for two entities to
possibly be colliding, they must be in the same grid box.
The collision detection algorithm would be as follows:
1. For each entity, determine which of the 100 by 100 grid boxes it belongs to. Assign the
entity’s ID to all of those boxes in some data structure representing the grid.
2. For each of the 100 by 100 grid boxes, perform the brute-force collision detection
algorithm between all pairs of entities, but only for entities in that specific grid box.
3. Be sure to avoid detecting the same collision between the same pair of entities twice, as
both entities might appear in multiple grid boxes.
The idea here would be to reduce the pairwise combinations you’d need to check, thereby
preventing the time complexity of collision detection from increasing at a quadratic rate. Feel
free to research and implement any other collision detection algorithms as well!
Extensible Design for Adding Collision Handlers (large)
Something you may experience when adding logic for handling collisions is that there’s a lot of
messiness to adding branches of logic for determining collision behavior based on all of the
different entity types in the game. For example:
private void handleCollision(Entity entity1, Entity entity2) {
if (entity1 instanceof Tank && entity2 instanceof Tank) {
// ...
} else if (entity1 instanceof Tank && entity2 instanceof Shell) {
// ...
} else if (entity1 instanceof Shell && entity2 instanceof Tank) {
// ...
The number of cases here can quickly get out of hand, and they are hard to verify for
correctness at a glance. This is a great opportunity to apply the Strategy Pattern to clean things
up. The logic that handles the collision between two entities can be treated as a strategy, and
we would effectively want multiple strategies to be maintained and applied when appropriate.
Consider creating a class hierarchy of CollisionHandler strategies, where specific subclasses
(e.g. TankTankCollisionHandler, TankShellCollisionHandler, etc.) implement a common
interface but with logic tailored to each specific type of collision.
Be warned: this is listed as a large feature specifically because it’s challenging to design correctly
in a way that actually improves the original code. To get full credit, you’ll need to be thorough.
Animations (small)
When shells hit a target, or when tanks and walls are destroyed, showing an explosion
animation can really improve the visual polish of the game. I’ve included some files
(,, and several images in “resources”) to handle loading
animations for you -- try using these to add explosion animations when shells, tanks, and walls
are destroyed!
Game UI (small)
Add some game information indicators on screen during gameplay, such as tank health, current
power-ups, or perhaps a score indicator. Each type of UI element added can count as a separate
small extra feature, limited to two of these in total. For example, adding life counters for each
tank would be a single Game UI feature, and adding “You win!” or “You lose!” screens would be
a second.
Sound (small)
You’ll need to dig into Java Swing code to learn how to incorporate sound into the program.
Being able to add sound effects can drastically improve the general polish of the game.
Pause Menu (medium)
If the user hits a certain key (escape would be a good option), pause the current gameplay and
show a window with buttons that allow the user to resume, restart, or quit. You’ll need to dig
into Java Swing code to learn how to bring up additional UI elements.