UCL DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY
Module Name: International Public Policy
Module Code: PUBL0090
Lecturer: Dr. Inken von Borzyskowski
Seminar Leaders: Dr. Simon Chin-Yee, and Dr. Kalina Zhekova, Dr. Patrick Pinkerton
Office Hours: See below.
Teaching: 10 hours of lectures, 10 hours of seminars.
Assessment Method: 3,000-word policy brief (fact sheet and position paper, jointly worth 50%)
and summer term “essay” (50%)
Deadlines: 19 October 2020 at 2pm (1,500-word policy brief part 1/fact sheet worth 20%)
16 November 2020 at 2pm (1,500-word policy brief part 2/position paper - formative)
16 December 2020 at 2pm (1,500-word policy brief part 2/position paper worth 30%)
12 May 2021 summer term “essay” (two 1,500-word policy memos, worth 50%)
** All times are UK times.
*PUBL0090 is a core module for the MSc International Public Policy (MSc IPP)
Programme. For this reason PUBL0090 is only available to MSc IPP students.
Penalties for Late Submission
Penalties for Overlength Essays
Essay Submission Information
Plagiarism and TurnItIn
Plagiarism and Academic Writing - a Guide for Students
(for the last, you will need to log in and enroll yourself on the page)
This is the core module for the MSc International Public Policy (IPP). The module provides a
conceptual overview and empirical illustrations intended to help students understand and analyze
the key challenges, actors, and institutions of contemporary international public policy. Students
learn how to think critically and analytically about topics in global governance, how to
conceptualize problems, how to think through the incentives and constraints of policymakers, and
the potential for and limitations of collective action and institutions. We cover these foundations
in the first part of the course and then spend the second part of the course discussing specific
issue areas. Students develop an understanding of major current and past policy debates in various
areas of international governance, including international security, international trade,
development, human rights, democracy, and the environment.
In addition to substantive knowledge about global policy challenges, this module helps develop
students’ practical skills to become effective participants in international public policy. We focus
on key skills in applied research, writing, and oral communication: how to research and organize
information about a country’s background and foreign policy, how to write a country position
paper about a global policy problem, how to give policy speeches, how to negotiate like a diplomat
with other actors on the international stage, and how to craft agreements (resolutions) to solve
real-world contemporary global policy challenges. We use seminar meetings to hone these skills
and apply them in a simulation of United Nations committee meetings in the second part of the
Speaking in front of others is a critical skill for almost any job you can imagine, but
particularly so in public policy. This class is a low risk forum for practicing and improving this
skill. Students are expected to come prepared and participate actively in class meetings. Students
also give two short presentations. To enhance peer learning, students receive feedback from fellow
students and provide feedback to their peers.
ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING
The course is taught through 10 weekly lectures and seminars. Lectures address the week’s topic
in the context of the research literature and available evidence. Virtual attendance at lectures and
seminars is required. For lectures, attendance means watching them; for seminars, attendance means
being present online and on time. Students need to complete the week’s readings and lecture
before the seminar. Students are expected to actively participate in all aspects of the seminar.
Seminars provide a space to discuss issues related to the week’s topic, hands-on skills, and prepare
students to master the policy simulation. During the policy simulation in reading week, students
are expected to remain “in character” of the country that they represent during the simulation.
Lecture: posted on Moodle 3 business days before the Tuesday seminars, meaning usually by
Thursdays before the Tuesday seminar. You should watch the lecture before the Tuesday seminar,
ideally Thursdays or Fridays. This provides you time to meet the deadlines for tasks and prepare
for the seminars, maximizing your learning experience.
Tasks: To deepen your learning, hone your skills, and engage you in the socially distanced learning
world, many weeks require you to complete tasks after lecture and before the seminar. The deadlines
for all tasks are on Moodle and also shown below in the grid/course outline. Most tasks open up
several days before they are due. The weekly tasks always include a quiz on the readings and lecture
to check how well you understood the readings. Your quiz score needs to be 80% or higher in
order to attend the week’s seminar. Quizzes are graded automatically and the score is displayed to
you immediately, in addition to the quiz questions that you may have gotten wrong. If you score
under 80% on the quiz, the task is not completed. However, you can re-take the quiz unlimited
times to look up what you missed in the readings/lecture and improve your score before the
deadline. You can take the quiz at your leisure between Thursday morning (after the release of
lecture) and Tuesday before seminar. That means you can continue to increase your quiz score
before the deadline. Only the highest score will be saved. The quiz scores do not contribute to your
course grade. Once we get into the second part of the term, things may get busier with your other
modules and other modules' assignments. If there is a rare occasion when you are unable to do
the quiz, you can email your seminar tutor explaining why you may not be able to do the 5-minute
quiz that particular week, and they can let you in. In addition to the quiz, weeks 1-5 include
additional short assignments, such as uploading your writing or video presentation, providing
feedback to peers, or filling in a survey. These tasks are posted on Moodle with their own deadlines
and are designed to enhance your hands-on learning experience during socially distant teaching.
Seminars: Tuesdays 9am-12 noon and 4-6pm on Zoom; links are posted on Moodle each week.
Seminar etiquette: be on time and turn video on. Video is important to simulate the real seminar
environment (i.e. generate an in-person class feeling), for students to get to know faces and people,
and to build classroom connections. It also makes it much easier for us to gauge your
understanding, problems, or open questions. Nothing like a quick thumbs up (or down!) from
students to know if everybody is on board, and an easy raising of hands for questions. If you prefer
not to show your room, choose a virtual background in zoom so you can show your face with an
artificial backdrop. Don’t use the chat function. We will not monitor the chat box to read your
question out loud for you; all private chats are public and saved when the zoom meeting ends.
Raise your hand when you want to engage; un-mute before you start talking; participate actively,
contributing to the full seminar at least once every week plus actively during breakout sessions.
Policy Simulation: During reading week, you will act as a delegate representing an individual
country in the United Nations during a simulated policy crisis. This will involve you giving
speeches, debating, and negotiating with others. The ultimate goal of the simulation is for delegates
to come up with a written solution (i.e., a resolution) to the real-world policy crisis they are trying
to solve. A resolution contains all the proposed solutions to the issue. You will create, negotiate,
and vote upon draft resolutions. Leading up to the simulation (in weeks 1-5), you will choose a
country to represent (by 5 October 2pm, or be assigned a country) and in week 1 and act as its
delegate. You and each delegate will give two 1-minute policy speeches (by 16 and 30 October
2pm). You will need to do background research and will need to present the arguments for a
particular option in a concise and applied manner. Always keep your audience (with whom you
are negotiating) and the real-world context in mind. In addition, each delegate will submit an
assessed 1,500-word “country fact sheet” about their assigned country and (after reading week) a
1,500-word “position paper” explaining their respective country's position regarding the given
issue (see deadlines in grid below). The topic for the simulation will be announced in seminar of
week 3. More information about the simulation will be provided in lectures of weeks 1 and 5,
during the seminars of weeks 1-5, and on Moodle. The simulation will take place during reading
week (schedule TBD) plus additional meetings for prior research or secret negotiations you wish
to carry out on your own.
Office Hours: Contact your seminar tutor for any questions; office hours are the best way to
discuss your questions. We encourage you to attend the office hours of your seminar tutor early
and often (not just before assignments are due). I will offer weekly module office hours (for *all*
IPP students) to ask any questions of general concern, e.g. relating to readings, lectures, assessments
etc. This time is for all of you, no appointment needed. If you choose to attend, be on time. Module
office hours are Mondays 1-2pm. Note that the end time is subject to change without advance
notice, depending on how much time the group sessions take - meaning some weeks we may only
take 10 minutes to answer questions, and other weeks we may take longer. After we are done with
Q&A during group office hours, you can stay and join a breakout room with a few of your peers
to socialize and get to know some new people. You can use this time to make a friend and/or
discuss any questions you may have for me – it’s likely one of your peers has the same question
and/or knows the answer. If you have an individual question, I will take you to a private breakout
room when it is your turn. To attend the group office hours, click on the link in the Moodle “keep
in touch” section.
In addition to the module office hours, your seminar tutor holds office hours for your individual
questions and advice. These are also online. Times are as follows:
• Seminars 1+4+7+10 with Dr. Zhekova are Tuesdays 1-3pm, book through MS bookings.
• Seminars 2+5+8+9 with Dr. Chin-Yee are Tuesdays 1-3pm, book through MS bookings.
• Seminars 3+6 with Dr. Pinkerton are Tuesdays 1-2pm and Mondays 10-11am, book
through MS bookings.
If you would like to schedule an alternative time to meet, please contact your seminar tutor or me
via email, and we can coordinate a time that works for us. If you email, make sure you follow the
email policy (see below).
Email policy: Your seminar tutor is your first point of contact and office hours are usually the
best way to discuss your question. If you cannot attend office hours, email your seminar tutor.
I will make every effort to respond to professional emails in a timely manner, usually within 48
hours, except weekends and holidays. I will not respond to questions that are answered in the
course outline, course assessment, lecture, or that require more than a short paragraph to address
fully. For more detailed responses, please see me during office hours. To receive a response, the
email must be professional, which means it must
1. be sent from your UCL email address,
2. include the course number (PUBL0090) in the subject line, and
3. address the instructor with a proper title (Dr or Professor) + last name
Our emails addresses are:
• Module leader: Dr. von Borzyskowski - i.Borzyskowski@ucl.ac.uk
• Seminars 1+4+7+10: Dr. Zhekova - email@example.com
• Seminars 2+5+8+9: Dr. Chin-Yee - firstname.lastname@example.org
• Seminars 3+6: Dr. Pinkerton - email@example.com
Academic freedom is the cornerstone of university research and teaching, so that all university
staff, speakers, and students can freely explore questions and ideas and challenge perceived views
and opinions, without being censored or harassed by a government, any state authorities, the
University, other students, or external pressure groups.1 As part of the UCL academic
community, all staff, speakers, and students share these responsibilities:
• Everyone must respect freedom of thought and freedom of expression. Your
lecturer will not limit what can be discussed in the seminar, as long as it is relevant to the
subject. They will not censor any topics, and they will expose you to controversial issues,
questions, facts, views, and debates.
o You may disagree with some facts or views that you read or hear in the
classroom. You are encouraged to engage with these facts and views in a
o Your lecturer will not penalize you merely for expressing views they or other
students disagree with. However, they will expect you to present logical
arguments supported by evidence.
• You are explicitly prohibited from recording, publishing, distributing or
transferring any class material/content, in whole or in part, in any format, to any
individual or entity outside the module, linking to or posting it online (including social
media), or making it otherwise available to any person or entity outside the module,
unless you have received prior specific written approval from the module leader. You are
also explicitly prohibited from aiding or abetting in any of these actions. Similarly, your
lecturer will not record, publish or distribute seminar sessions without the explicit
consent of the participants.
• By agreeing to take this module, you agree to abide by these terms. If you do not
comply with these terms, you will potentially be subject to disciplinary actions similar
to those under violations of the university Student Code of Conduct.
1 As defined in Statute 18 of the UCL Charter and Statutes, academic freedom’s role is to
“ensure that academic staff have freedom within the law to question and test received wisdom,
and to put forward new ideas and controversial or unpopular opinions, without placing
themselves in jeopardy of losing their jobs or privileges.”
The assignments in this course are designed to test and hone some of the key skills for a career in
international public policy. Students will be assessed through writing assignments during term and
a summer “essay.” Final grades are composed of both the summer “essay” (50%) and the writing
assignments (total of 50%). The writing assignments are a total of 3,000 words and consist of two
parts: a 1,500-word country fact sheet (due 19 October at 2pm) and a 1,500-word country position
paper (due 16 December at 2pm). The parts are weighted 20% and 30%; the position paper weighs
more than the fact sheet because the position paper requires more critical thinking and analysis.
As a mandatory formative assignment, a full draft of the position paper is due during the term on
16 November at 2pm. The position paper builds on the fact sheet and enables students to
successfully participate in the policy simulation during reading week. Both parts (fact sheet and
position paper) enable students to hold policy speeches. That is why the draft position paper and
speeches are mandatory (even though they are for practice only) and it is critical that you work
hard on them. Students who submit high-quality drafts and assignments can receive more detailed
and helpful feedback on how to improve their work. More information is provided in lectures and
seminars; the detailed course assessment is available on Moodle.
A note on plagiarism: Cheating and plagiarism are unacceptable and will get you in great trouble.
Don’t steal other people’s ideas. Never copy/paste; if you quote, use quotation marks; always
reference your source (ideally with page number). If you are caught plagiarizing or cheating, you
will be subject to the disciplinary procedures spelled out in the Student Handbook. Please consult
the plagiarism website for further information. If you have any questions, please ask ahead of time.
How you can avoid plagiarism: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/library/libraryskills-ucl/guides-and-
elearning/references-citations-and-avoiding-plagiarism For referencing style, use Harvard.
Students are expected to read each item listed under “required.” Required readings are available
electronically on the Moodle course website. Changes to the topics or reading list may be made
during the term. However, sufficient notice will always be provided (at least one week).
You should make a habit (if you have not already) of reading at least one major newspaper or
periodical with substantial international coverage, such as the New York Times, The Economist, Al
Jazeera, or BBC World News. You can access these and other news sources free of charge through
the UCL library online. Lectures will frequently reference relevant current international events,
and being conversant with what is going on in the world will be important to contribute to
discussions and do well on exams. We will reference current events in the countries we are
studying, so it is in your best interest to stay on top of things.
If you want to familiarize yourself ahead of time with some of the key debates in international
relations, international institutions, or policy analysis, you may be interested in acquiring the
following books, which are available at the bookstore and for free as e-books at the UCL library
• World Politics: Interests, Interactions, and Institutions, by Frieden, Lake, and Schultz. Norton &
Company. 2018 (4th edition).
• International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, by Hurd. Cambridge. 2018 (3rd edition).
• A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving, by
Bardach. 2016 (5th edition).
Week 1 2 3 4 5 Reading week 6 7 8 9 10
Introduction Foundations Institutions United Nations Security Policy
Development Environment Trade
(29 Oct-3 Nov
(26 Nov - 1 Dec
survey in the
(2 Oct 2pm)
#2: Sign up for
a country in the
(5 Oct 2pm)
draft of country
fact sheet in
(11 Oct 2pm)
fact sheets to 2
peers from your
(12 Oct 2pm)
#1: Submit your
issues to full
(16 Oct 2pm)
your 2 assigned
peers from your
(18 Oct 2pm)
(19 Oct 2pm)
#1: Submit your
draft of country
(25 Oct 2pm)
to 2 peers from
(26 Oct 2pm)
(30 Oct 2pm)
your 2 assigned
peers from your
(1 Nov 2pm)
draft text for
(4 Nov 2pm)
#4: In the same
about 2 allies
with joint goals
and 2 countries
to win over
(6 Nov 2pm)
#1: Call your
(9 Nov, details
(16 Nov 2pm)
(16 Dec 2pm –
moved up by
due to term
How to …
1) make a
2) write a
3) do research
4) give a policy
5) write a
6) vote on a
& act in a UN
How to …
9-13 Nov 17 Nov
How to …
13 Oct 12pm:
Coffee hour #1
21 Oct 6pm:
27 Oct 12pm:
3 Nov 12pm:
Coffee hour #2
18 Nov 6pm:
23 Nov 12pm:
1 Dec 12pm:
10 Dec 1pm: IPP
9 Dec 8am-1pm
15 Dec 12pm:
Coffee hour #4
Week 1: Introduction
What is international public policy? What are the challenges of global governance? What is the policy process? Why is
it difficult for the international community to agree on solutions?
• Course outline & course assessment
• Van Oudenaren, John. 2003. What is "Multilateral"? Policy Review 117: 33-47.
• Cairney, Paul. 2020. “Multilevel Governance” and “What is the Policy Cycle?” In
Understanding Public Policy, 130-133 and 25-36.
• The Economist. 2008. Who Runs the World? Wrestling for Influence.
• Daalder, Ivo and James Lindsay. 2018. The Committee to Save the World Order. Foreign
• Guides on how to 0) read; 1) make a country fact sheet; 2) write a country position paper; 3)
do research for each
• Council of Foreign Relations. 2019. Report Card on International Cooperation. Interactive,
Available at https://www.cfr.org/interactive/councilofcouncils/reportcard2019/#!/
• Smith, Catherine. 2015. Writing Public Policy. A Practical Guide to Communicating in the Policy
Making Process. Oxford University Press. Chapter 8, Briefing, Opinion, Resolution: Inform
Policy Makers (pp. 148-161).
• McConnell, Allan. 2016. A public policy approach to understanding the nature and causes of
foreign policy failure. Journal of European Public Policy 23 (5): 667-684.
• Barrilleaux, Charles, Christopher Reenock, and Mark Souva. 2017. Public Policy Models, in
Democratic Policymaking: An Analytic Approach, Cambridge University Press, 11-56.
• Cairney, Paul. 2020. Multiple Streams Analysis, in Understanding Public Policy, 195-206.
• Weiss, Thomas. 2000. Governance, Good Governance and Global Governance: Conceptual
and Actual Challenges. Third World Quarterly 21 (5): 795-814.
Optional video: Susana Malcorra (former Argentina Foreign Secretary) on “Global Organizations in
an Isolationist World”
Week 2: Foundations
Who are the actors in IPP? Why can’t actors always get what they want? What are their interests and which
constraints do they face? What is collective action? What is the best way to lead in international politics?
• Frieden, Lake, and Schultz. 2018. World Politics: Interests, Interactions, and Institutions, chapter 2.
Norton & Company, 4th edition.
• Odell, Rachel and Annelle Sheline. 2020. Greek and Turkish ships are playing chicken at sea.
Washington Post’s Monkey Cage.
• Sandler, Todd. 2004. With a Little Help From My Friends: Principles of Global Collective
Action, in Global Collective Action, pp. 17-36. New York: Cambridge.
• Guide on how to 4) give a policy speech.
• Watch example videos of good and bad presentations:
• Biden, Joseph. 2020. Why America must lead again – rescuing foreign policy after Trump.
• Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action,
• Putnam, Robert. 1988. Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.
International Organization 42 (3): 427-460.
• Knill, Christoph and Jale Tosun. 2012. Theoretical Approaches to Policy-Making, in: Public
Policy: A New Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 69-96.
• Cairney, Paul. 2020. Collective Action Problems in Public Policy. In Understanding Public
Week 3: Institutions
What are international institutions? How do they help address IPP problems? What is the difference between
compliance, cooperation, and effectiveness?
• Hurd, Ian. 2018. International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, chapters 1 and 2. Cambridge,
• Chayes, Abram and Antonia Handler Chayes. 1993. On Compliance. International Organization
47 (2): 175-205.
• Downs, George, David Rocke, and Peter Barsoom. 1996. Is the good news about
compliance good news about cooperation? International Organization 50 (3): 379-406.
• Martin, Lisa. 2013. Against Compliance, in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and
International Relations: The State of the Art, edited by Jeffrey Dunoff and Mark Pollack, 591-610.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
• Botcheva, Liliana and Lisa Martin. 2001. Institutional Effects on State Behavior:
Convergence and Divergence. International Studies Quarterly 45 (1): 1-26.
• Pevehouse, Jon, and Inken von Borzyskowski. 2016. International Organizations in World
Politics. In The Oxford Handbook of International Organizations, edited by Jacob Katz Cogan, Ian
Hurd, and Ian Johnstone, chapter 1.
• Vabulas, Felicity, and Duncan Snidal. 2013. Organization Without Delegation: Informal
Intergovernmental Organizations (IIGOs) and the Spectrum of Intergovernmental
Arrangements. Review of International Organizations 8: 193-220.
Week 4: The United Nations
What is the UN? What does it do, how does it work, and what are its key bodies? Which crises can and cannot be
solved by the UN?
• Mingst, Karen, Margaret Karns, and Alynna Lyon. 2017. The United Nations in the 21st Century,
pp. 21-63 and 71-93. Westview Press, 5th edition.
• Sengupta, Somini. 2014. Why the UN Can’t Solve the World’s Problems. New York
Times, July 26, 2014.
• Guides on how to 5) write a resolution; 6) vote on a resolution & act in a UN committee
(UN rules of procedure)
• United Nations. 2017. Basic Facts about the United Nations. New York, 42nd edition.
• Miller, Lynn. 1999. The Idea and the Reality of Collective Security. Global Governance 5 (3):
• Weiss, Thomas. 2003. The Illusion of UN Security Council Reform. The Washington Quarterly
26 (4): 147-161.
• Hurd, Ian. 2018. International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, chapter 3. Cambridge, 3rd
Week 5: Security
How can the international community address security crises? What is peacekeeping and (how) does it work? How do
interests and institutions influence international security policies?
• Mingst, Karen, Margaret Karns, and Alynna Lyon. 2017. The United Nations in the 21st Century,
chapter 4 (especially pp. 131-159). Westview Press, 5th edition.
• UN Peacekeeping Operations. 2020. Factsheet. In addition, check out
• Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon. 2014. Beyond Keeping Peace: United
Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting. American Political Science Review 108 (4): 737-
• Guide on how to 7) negotiate
• Vreeland, James and Axel Dreher. 2014. The Political Economy of the United Nations Security
Council: Money and Influence. Cambridge, pp. 1-26 and 62-70.
• Fortna, Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices after Civil Wars.
Chapters 4 and 5 (pp. 76-126).
• Jarstad, Anna, and Timothy Sisk. 2008. From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding.
Cambridge University Press.
• Karreth, Johannes and Jaroslav Tir. 2013. International Institutions and Civil War
Prevention. Journal of Politics 75 (1): 96-109.
• Hurd, Ian. 2018. International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, chapter 4 (pp. 80-108).
Cambridge, 3rd edition.
Optional videos for skill building: https://www.usip.org/academy/catalog/introduction-
peacebuilding-micro-course and https://www.usip.org/academy/catalog/negotiation-shaping-
** Reading Week: Policy Simulation! **
Week 6: Human Rights
What are human rights and why do states violate them? Why do some actors care about human rights in other
countries? How can human rights be protected?
• Hafner-Burton, Emilie. 2008. Stick and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights
Enforcement Problem. International Organization 62 (4): 689-716.
• Kelley, Judith. 2007. Who Keeps International Commitments and Why? The International
Criminal Court and Bilateral Nonsurrender Agreements. American Political Science Review 101
• Vreeland, James Raymond. 2008. Political Institutions and Human Rights: Why
Dictatorships enter into the United Nations Convention Against Torture. International
Organization 62 (1): 65-101.
• Zvobgo, Kelebogile, Wayne Sandholtz, Suzie Mulesky. 2020. Reserving Rights: Explaining
Human Rights Treaty Reservations. International Studies Quarterly.
• Pevehouse, Jon, and Felicity Vabulas. 2019. Nudging the Needle: Foreign Lobbies and US
Human Rights Ratings. International Studies Quarterly 63 (1): 85-98.
• Scott Straus. 2005. Darfur and the Genocide Debate. Foreign Affairs.
• Lupu, Yonatan. 2013. Best Evidence: The Role of Information in Domestic Judicial
Enforcement of International Human Rights Agreements. International Organization 67 (3):
• Prorok, Alyssa. 2017. The (In)compatibility of Peace and Justice? The International Criminal
Court and Civil Conflict Termination. International Organization 71 (2): 213-243.
Optional videos for skill building: https://www.usip.org/academy/catalog/design-monitoring-
Week 7: Democracy
How can the international community protect and promote democracy and elections? Which policy tools exist, when are
they applied, and do they work? What are constraining and screening effects??
• Pevehouse, Jon. 2002. With a little Help from my Friends? Regional Organizations and the
Consolidation of Democracy. American Journal of Political Science 46 (3): 611-626.
• von Borzyskowski, Inken and Felicity Vabulas. 2019. Credible Commitments? Explaining
Suspensions to Sanction Political Backsliding. International Studies Quarterly 63 (1): 139-152
• Hyde, Susan. 2011. Does Election Monitoring Matter? In The Pseudo-Democrat’s Dilemma: Why
Election Observation Became an International Norm, chapter 4. Cornell University Press.
• Masi, Tania. 2015. Non-governmental Organizations and Democracy: An Empirical
Analysis. Peace Economics and Peace Science 21 (4): 489-496.
• How to 8) understand and criticize research
• Chertoff, Michael and Anders Fogh Rasmussen. 2019. The Unhackable Election: What It
Takes to Defend Democracy. Foreign Affairs.
• Aydın-Düzgit, Senem, Tom Gerald Daly, Ken Godfrey, Staffan Lindberg, Anna
Lührmann, Tsveta Petrova, and Richard Youngs. 2019. Post-Cold War Democratic Declines:
The Third Wave of Autocratization. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
• Donno, Daniela. 2010. Who is Punished? Regional Intergovernmental Organizations and the
Enforcement of Democratic Norms. 2010. International Organization 64 (4): 593-625.
• von Borzyskowski, Inken. 2016. Resisting Democracy Assistance: Who Seeks and Receives
Technical Election Assistance? Review of International Organizations 11 (2): 247-282.
• Steele, Carie, Daniel Pemstein, and Stephen Meserve. 2020. Democracy promotion and
electoral quality: A disaggregated analysis. Governance.
• von Stein, Jana. 2005. Do Treaties Constrain or Screen? Selection Bias and Treaty
Compliance. American Political Science Review 99 (4): 611-22
Week 8: Development
What is the development gap? Why does it exist and how can it be mitigated? Does foreign aid help with development?
How could aid be more effective?
• Short policy pieces on the aid debate:
o Sachs, Jeffrey. 2005. The Development Challenge. Foreign Affairs.
o Sachs, Jeffrey. 2014. The Case for Aid. Foreign Policy.
o Easterly, William. 2013. The Aid Debate Is Over: The failure of Jeffrey Sachs'
o Bhagwati, Jagdish. 2010. Banned Aid. Foreign Affairs 89 (1): 120-126.
• Radelet, Steven, Michael Clemens, and Rikhil Bhavnani. 2005. Aid and Growth. Finance and
Development 42 (3): 16-20.
• Bearce, David and Daniel Tirone. 2010. Foreign Aid Effectiveness and the Strategic Goals
of Donor Governments. Journal of Politics 72 (3): 837-851.
• Ferry, Lauren, Emilie Hafner-Burton, and Christina Schneider. 2020. Catch me if you care:
International development organizations and national corruption. Review of International
Organizations 15: 767-792.
• Briggs, Ryan. 2020. Results from single-donor analyses of project aid success seem to
generalize pretty well across donors. Review of International Organizations 15: 947-963.
• Dreher, Axel, Jan-Egbert Sturm and James Raymond Vreeland. 2009. Development Aid and
International Politics: Does Membership on the UN Security Council influence World Bank
decisions? Journal of Development Economics 88: 1-18
• Woods, Ngaire. 2016. How to Save the World Bank. Project Syndicate.
• Wang, Hongying. 2016. New Multilateral Development Banks: Opportunities and
Challenges for Global Governance. Council on Foreign Relations.
• Rodrik, Dani. 2006. Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? Journal
of Economic Literature: 973-987.
• Mallaby, Sebastian. 2004. NGOs: Fighting Poverty, Hurting the Poor. Foreign Policy.
Week 9: The Environment
If policy interventions can limit the damage of human-made climate change, then why is it so difficult for states to agree
on solutions? How can global warming be mitigated?
• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2018. Global Warming of 1.5 Celsius:
Summary for Policymakers.
• The Economist. 2019. Sunny with overcast features: Countries look at ways to tinker with
• Flachsland, Christian, Robert Marschinski, and Ottmar Edenofer. 2009. Global Trading
Versus Linking: Architectures for International Emissions Trading. Energy Policy.
• Urpelainen, Johannes. 2015. Here’s What Political Science Can Tell Us About the Paris
Climate Deal. Washington Post.
• Busby, Joshua, and Nina von Uexkull. 2019. Climate Shocks and Humanitarian Crises:
Which Countries Are Most at Risk? Foreign Affairs.
• Keohane, Robert, and David Victor. 2011. The regime complex for climate change.
Perspectives on politics 9 (1): 7-23.
• Mitchell, Ronald. 1994. Regime Design Matters: International Oil Pollution and Treaty
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• Najam, Adil, Saleumul Huq and Youba Sokona. 2003. Climate Negotiations beyond Kyoto:
Developing Countries Concerns and Interests. Climate Policy 3 (3): 221-231.
Week 10: Trade
Why do countries trade? If trade is efficient, then why do many countries restrict trade in some way? What barriers to
trade to countries use, and how is trade regulated internationally?
• Crowley, Meredith. 2003. An Introduction to the WTO and GATT. Economic Perspectives 42-
• Goldstein, Judith, Douglas Rivers, and Michael Tomz. 2007. Institutions in International
Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and WTO on World Trade. International
Organization 61 (1): 37-67.
• Chatzky, Andrew. 2019. The Truth About Tariffs. Council on Foreign Relations.
• Legrain, Philippe. 2018. “Steeling for a Fight.” Foreign Policy.
• Gowa, Joanne and Soo Yeon Kim. 2005. An Exclusive Country Club: The Effects of the
GATT on Trade, 1950-94. World Politics 57 (4): 453-78.
• Busch, Marc. 2007. Overlapping Institutions, Forum Shopping, and Dispute Settlement in
International Trade. International Organization 61 (4): 735-61.
• Johns, Leslie and Krzysztof Pelc. 2014. Who Gets to Be in the Room? Manipulating
Participation in WTO Disputes. International Organization 68 (3): 663-99. 学霸联盟