Java代写 - Reinforcement learning
1 General idea In this assignment, you will write a program that uses reinforcement learning to learn the correct policy in a Markov Decision Process. The input to the program is a Markov Decision Process. Rather than solve this, however, the program will learn what to do through experimentation. It will play many rounds. In each round it starts in a random state. It then goes through the process: at each state it chooses an action, and then the stochastic process puts it in a new state. When it reaches a terminal state, that round is over. It now records, for each state and choice of action that it went through, how well that choice of action worked out for it. Initially it chooses the action at random, but as it plays more and more round and gets more and more experience, it increasingly chooses the actions that in the past have paid o↵ for it. Conceptually, there is an agent and a world model. The world model randomly chooses a starting state and executes the Markov decision process each time the agent chooses an action. The agent chooses actions and gradually learns what actions are best. You are not required to implement these as separate modules, though you might wish to. 2 Markov decision process There are n non-terminal states, numbered 0 to n!1 and t terminal states, numbered n to n+t!1. In each state, there is at least one action, numbered consecutively from 0. The transition probabilities for any given action in any given situation are given in the program input. In each round, the agent starts at a random starting state. The agent repeatedly chooses an action according to a formula discussed in section 6, and the world model moves them to a new state, until the agent reaches a terminal state, when the round ends. When the round ends, the agent updates the information about the states traversed and the actions chosen as discussed below in section 4. 3 Input The input is from a text file or standard input. The first line consists of five parameters: 1. The number of non-terminal states. 2. The number of terminal states. 3. The number of rounds to play, 4. The frequency with which to print output (section 5). 1 5. The parameter M (an integer) controlling the “explore/exploit” trade-o↵ discussed in section 6 The second line specifies the rewards in the terminal states, alternating state number with its reward (an integer). The remaining line specify the transition probabilities for actions in non-terminal states. Each line begins with the number of a state, colon, the number of a action followed by alternating a number of a state number and the probability of transitioning to that state. 3.1 Example Input For instance, here is the input for the simple process above (similar to the one in problem set 5, but with numbers on the state, and with di↵erent rewards): 2 2 3 2 10 2436 0:0 1 0.1 2 0.4 3 0.5 0:1 1 0.6 2 0.1 3 0.3 1:0 0 0.8 2 0.1 3 0.1 1:1 0 0.1 2 0.4 3 0.5 You may assume that the input is correctly formatted and describes a valid MDP. You may also assume that from any starting state, any policy has probability 1 of eventually reaching a terminal state, so you don’t have to worry about a round going into an infinite loop. Self-loops are possible; that is, there may be an action that has some chance of leaving the agent in the same state. 2 4 Learning Set up a data structure that records for each non-terminal state S and action A: • Count[S,A] The number of rounds so far that the agent has been in state S and chosen A. • Total[S,A] The total reward of those rounds. During each round, keep a data structure that tracks the states that have been encountered and the actions taken. (Do not count duplicates.) At the end of the round, for each state-action S,A encountered, increment Count[S,A] by 1 and increase Total[S,A] by the reward for the round. For instance, suppose that we play three rounds. The first round is the sequence 0:1, 1:0, 3 (that is, the agent starts at state 0; it take action 1; that takes it to 1; it takes action 0; that takes it to the terminal state 3 where it gets a reward of 6.) Count[0,1] and Count[1,0] will be set to 1. Total[0,1] and Total[1,0] will be set to 6. The second round is the sequence 1:1, 0:1, 1:1, 2 Count[1,1] will be incremented by 1 (not 2, even though it appears twice in the round. Count[0,1] will be incremented by 1. Total[0,1] and Total[1,1] will be increased by 4, the payo↵ for the round. The third round is the sequence 1:0, 0:1, 1:0, 0:0, 3 Count[1,0], Count[0,1], and Count[0,0] will be incremented by 1. Total[1,0], Total[0,1], and Total[0,0] will be increased by 6. So at the end the three rounds, Count[0,0]=1; Count[0,1]=3; Count[1,0]=2; Count[1,1]=1. Total[0,0]=6; Total[0,1]=16; Total[1,0]=12; Total[1,1]=4. 5 Output The amount of output is determined by the frequency parameter v in the input. If v = 0, then the output should be printed only after all the rounds are complete; otherwise, output should be printed after every v rounds. When output is printed, it should show: The current values of the Count and Total matrices. The best move in each state S, as determined by the largest value of Total[S,A] / Count[S,A]. If Count[S,A] is 0 for any action A, output U, for unknown. 5.1 Example Output In the example above, the output would be: After 2 rounds Count: [0,0]=0. [0,1]=2. [1,0]=1. [1,1]=1. Total: [0,0]=0. [0,1]=10. 3 [1,0]=6. [1,1]=4. Best action: 0:U. 1:0. After 3 rounds Count: [0,0]=1. [0,1]=3. [1,0]=2. [1,1]=1. Total: [0,0]=6. [0,1]=16. [1,0]=12. [1,1]=4. Best action: 0:0. 1:0. 6 Choosing the Action When one is combining actions with learning in an unknown environment, there is generally an “explore/exploit” trade-o↵ to consider. That is, how much e↵ort should you spend exploring all the possibilities, versus exploiting actions that have been found to be successful. Generally, when you are starting in a new environment, you want to favor exploring; as you get to know the environment, you increasingly favor exploiting it. For instance, if you move to a new city and enjoy eating out, then at first, you try lots of possibilities; after you’ve been there for a while, you increasingly go to old favorites. In this assignment, the way in which the action is chosen in a state goes from exploring (choosing an action at random) to exploiting (choosing the best action) gradually, at a speed controlled by the hyperparameter M; the larger M, the longer it takes to change from one regime to the other. Your program should choose the action according to the following algorithm: chooseAction(State s; int[][] count; int[][] total; int M) { % M is the hyperparameter in the input; n = number of actions feasible in s; if (there are any actions u such that count[a,u]==0) return u; % choose an untried action arbitrarily; for (i=0 to n-1) avg[i] = total[s,i]/count[s,i]; % average reward bottom = the smallest reward of any terminal node; top = the largest reward of any terminal node; for (i=0 to n-1) savg(i) = 0.25+0.75*(avg[i]-bottom)/(top-bottom) % average scaled to range [0.25,1]; c = Pn!1 i=0 count[s,i]; for (i=0 to n-1) up[i] = savg[i]**(c/M) % unnormalized probability norm = Pn!1 i=0 up[i]; for (i=0 to n-1) p[i] = up[i]/norm; return (randomly choose action i with probability p[i]); } So, for instance suppose that the program has gone through the three rounds in the above example, so that Count[0,0]=1; Count[0,1]=3; Count[1,0]=2; Count[1,1]=1. Total[0,0]=6; Total[0,1]=16; Total[1,0]=12; Total[1,1]=4. 4 Let M=10. You are now playing a fourth round and the current state is 0. Then: avg=[6,5.3333]. top=6. bottom=4. savg=[1,0.75]. c=4. up=[10.4, 0.750.4] = [1.0, 0.89]. p = [0.53, 0.47]. So there is a 53% chance of choosing action 0 and a 47% chance of choosing action 1. The details of the above are not particularly significant, or especially well adapted to this problem; in fact, I pulled them out of a hat. But the key points are this: • In the early rounds, c will be much less than M so the exponent c/M will be much less than 1. When we raise the numbers in savg, which are all values between 0.25 and 1, to the power c/M, they will all be close to 1. So you are choosing nearly randomly. • In the late rounds, c will be much greater than M so the exponent c/M will be much greater than 1. If i is the best move and j is the value of the second-best move, then up[i]/up[j] will be (savg[ii]/savg[j])**(c/M), which will be very large unless j is nearly as good as i. So with high probability, we choose the best move, or some move that is almost as good as the best move (as compared to the range in reward values at the terminal nodes). Note. If c is much greater than M, then you run into the danger of underflow. If you want to be really fancy, you can program up an arithmetic exception handler, and change any value that is in underflow to 0 in up. Or you can write code to catch these some other way. But you are not required to bother with this; you can assume that the input parameters will be chosen so that it will not run into underflow. 7 Choosing randomly from a distribution If you are coding in Python, you can use the method random.choices() described here: https: // In other languages: If you are given a distribution p0, then the way to sample from the numbers 0 ...k with that distribution is to execute the following code: (The function rand() here generates a random floating point number uniformly distributed between 0 and 1. Any half-decent mathematical library will supply this with some name.) u0 = p0 for (i = 1 ...k) ui = ui!1 + pi. x = rand(); % Uniformly distributed between 0 and 1. for (i = 0 ...k ! 1) if x