COMP2100 Bomb Lab – Assignment-C/C++代写|Assignment代写
时间:2020-11-05

Introduction
The nefarious Dr. Evil has planted a slew of “binary bombs” on our servers. A binary bomb is a
program that consists of a sequence of phases. Each phase expects you to type a particular string on
stdin. If you type the correct string, then the phase is defused and the bomb proceeds to the next
phase. Otherwise, the bomb explodes by printing “BOOM!!!” (or something similar) and then
terminating. The bomb is defused when every phase has been defused.
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There are too many bombs for us to deal with, so we are giving each student a bomb to defuse. Your
mission, which you have no choice but to accept, is to defuse your bomb before the due date. Good
luck, and welcome to the bomb squad!
Your assignment is to defuse the phases of a single bomb. In order to maximise your progress
marks, you should defuse a different phase of the bomb each week. In order to maximise your
achievement marks, you will want to be ahead of the progress mark deadlines because there are
only four progress marks, but the bomb has six phases.
 BREAKING NEWS!! Dr. Evil has evidently become aware of Internet sites that
provide help for defusing his earlier binary bombs. The most recent binary bombs
are very different.

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Specific Learning Outcomes
The specific learning outcomes of this lab exercise include the following. You will encounter these
learning outcomes at various phases of the lab.
• Using debugging tools is a major learning outcome. You cannot achieve anything worthwhile
in this lab without using debugging tools.
• Interpret data values in memory and registers.
• Experience with ASCII character conversion.
• Interpret assembly code corresponding to numeric and logical operators.
• Interpret addressing modes including immediate, register, and register indirect modes.
• Recognise and interpret control constructs expressed in assembly including if-else and loops.
• Recognise and interpret procedure calls, parameters, and returns expressed in assembly.
• Interpret information stored on the stack.
• Interpret simple data structures in memory.
• Experience with buffer overflow exploit.
• Convert assembly code to pseudo-C and interpret the code.
Rules of the Game (Academic Integrity)
The principles of academic integrity apply to this assignment. The work you do in this assignment
must be your own individual work. Any help that you receive from others should be of a general
nature and not specific to the bomb lab assignment, to your bomb or any other person’s bomb.
We want the binary bomb lab to be an effective learning environment for you and for your fellow
students. Therefore, please keep within the following rules.
Rules.
• Don’t share your bomb, disassembled code from your bomb, or your bomb solutions with
any other person except teaching staff in the Computing Department.
• Don’t share the assignment specification outside Macquarie University.
• Don’t store or post the assignment specification or your assignment work on any website or
forum.
Copyright © 2020 Macquarie University 3
• Don’t put anything on github or similar sites.
• Don’t seek specific help from any person except teaching staff in the Computing
Department. Any person is permitted to give you general help, but if you are showing them
your bomb, even just one assembly line, then you should be seeking help from Computing
staff.
• Don’t ask questions specific to your bomb on the ilearn forums. Find a more general way to
ask what you need help with, or ask Computing staff.
• Don’t post code from your bomb into any forum, not even the ilearn forums.
• Don’t use GHIDRA or similar tools. Use gdb instead and learn how to interpret assembly as
pseudo-C, because you will be tested on your ability to do that.
• Don’t try to find information on the internet about how to solve the bomb lab phases – the
information you find will not be relevant to the bomb lab that we are running at Macquarie
University.
• Do not share key ideas or specifics of what you did to solve the phases. Instead, let your
fellow students having the same learning experience that you did, solving their bomb phases
for themselves.
• Don’t try to solve the bomb by brute force – you will not learn what we intend you to learn
and you may be locked out of the server.
Seeking Help?
The right kind of help is valuable for your learning. The right kind of help supports you to meet the
challenge through helping you to understand the problem and how to go about solving it. With the
wrong kind of help, you may get the answer but you still don’t know why it works.
You are encouraged to discuss general issues with your fellow students and on the iLearn forums.
This includes topics such as:
• Understanding the assignment specification or support notes documents on iLearn.
• Understanding the examples discussed in lectures and video recordings.
• How to use the lab command.
• Gdb commands and how to use gdb to set breakpoints, step through code, disassemble,
etc.
• Useful Unix commands (see the Hints section below).
• Useful information on the unit’s ilearn site.
• Useful general information on the internet, such as assembly language and gdb information.
• Information about machine instructions, such as discussing “what does cmpb do?”
If you need help that is specific to your bomb, please approach your workshop tutor in person, on
zoom, or via email; or approach the unit convenor by email len.hamey@mq.edu.au. If you are
considering seeking help in some other way but are not sure whether it is allowed, please ask the
unit convenor by email len.hamey@mq.edu.au.

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Step 1: Get Your Bomb
You can obtain your bomb by using the lab command to get lab 2.1.
$ lab –g 2.1
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A binary bomb has already been placed in the server for you, and the lab command will download it
in a tar file. Save the tar file to a protected directory in which you plan to do your work. When you
extract the tar file, it will create a directory called bombk where k is your unique bomb ID. The
directory contains the following files:
• README: Identifies the bomb and its owner.
• bomb: The executable binary bomb.
• bomb.c: Source file with the bomb's main routine and a friendly greeting from Dr. Evil. We
have verified that this source code is genuine. This file contains information that may be
useful, although how much can you trust someone with the name `Dr. Evil'? In particular,
we do not adhere to his licensing terms so you should feel free to use all the tools he
mentions, and any other tools you like, to disassemble, dump and debug the bomb.
If for some reason you request the bomb again, this is not a problem. You will receive the same
bomb.
Note: You can earn all the progress marks and all the achievement marks by defusing the six phases
of the one bomb. Unlike the first assignment, this assignment does not require you to download
something different for each stage of the assignment. Instead, you will work through the phases of
your bomb.

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Step 2: Defuse Your Bomb
Your job for this lab is to defuse your bomb.
You must do the assignment on one of the machines iceberg or ash. In fact, there is a rumour that
Dr. Evil really is evil, and the bomb will always blow up if run elsewhere. There are several other
tamper-proofing devices built into the bomb as well, or so we hear.
You can use many Unix system tools to help you defuse your bomb. Please look at the hints section
below for some tips and ideas, and there are additional documents on iLearn providing further
assistance. The best way to defuse the bomb is to use the Unix debugger gdb to disassemble the
code and interpret it, then step through the disassembled binary to check your understanding. We
have provided a separate document giving you some help to defuse your bomb with gdb, and a
video demonstrating some of the useful gdb features on an example module called is_yes.
Each time your bomb explodes it notifies the bomblab server. The first explosion does not cost you
marks, but after that you lose 0.1 points (up to 2.0 marks for each bomb) in the final score for
defusing that bomb. There is only one way to recover lost points – to start again with a second bomb
which we will offer to you later in the lab. So there are consequences to exploding the bomb. You
must be careful!
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 The command to fetch your second bomb is
$ lab –g 2.2
However, the second bomb is not available when the lab first opens – we have to
wait for Dr Evil to put more bombs on our server. Also, you have to defuse at
least two stages of the first bomb before you can fetch a second bomb.
There are six phases. The first four phases are worth 2.0 marks each and the last two phases are
worth 1.5 marks each. There are also four progress marks, and 10 marks for a final quiz testing your
mastery of the concepts learned in the assignment. The maximum score you can get is 25 marks.
The minimum score is -2.0 if you explode your bombs 20 times each and do not solve any phases.
Negative marks in this assignment will count as zero in your final grade for the unit.
Although phases get progressively harder to defuse, the expertise you gain as you move from phase
to phase should offset this difficulty. However, the last phase will challenge even the best students,
so please don't wait until the last minute to start.
 The bomb asks for your input with a prompt. It ignores blank input lines.
It is not wise to run your bomb from the command line, although you can do that. It is
recommended to run it inside gdb using gdb’s run command. When you run the bomb, it will
display a prompt and read the input line that you type. It will then decide whether it accepts the
input line and defuses the phase, or explodes.
 After you enter your input line, the bomb typically takes 1-2 seconds to decide
whether it accepts your input. This gives you time to press control-C if you make
a mistake in your input. However, it is strongly recommended to use breakpoints
to prevent the bomb from exploding.
You can type the name of a text file as the command-line argument to run the bomb, for example:
$ gdb bomb
(gdb) run psol.txt
The bomb will then read the input lines from psol.txt until it reaches EOF (end of file), and then
switch over to reading from stdin. In a moment of weakness, Dr. Evil added this feature so you
don't have to keep retyping the solutions to phases you have already defused – you can store your
earlier phase solutions in the text file.
 When the bomb is reading from a file, it displays the prompt and each line that it
reads from the file.
To avoid accidentally detonating the bomb, you will need to learn how to single-step through the
assembly code and how to set breakpoints in gdb. You will also need to learn how to inspect both
the registers and the memory states. One of the nice side-effects of doing the lab is that you will get
very good at using a debugger. This is a crucial skill that will pay big dividends for the rest of your
career.

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Copyright © 2020 Macquarie University 6
Logistics
This is an individual project. All submissions are electronic and automatic – you do not need to use
the lab command to submit anything because your bomb notifies the server of your successes and
failures.
Clarifications and corrections will be posted in iLearn.
Achievement Marks
Achievement marks in this lab are earned for defusing phases of the bomb. The first four phases are
worth 2.0 marks each and the last two phases are worth 1.5 marks each.
Phases 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been heavily influenced by Scott Evil. As you know, Scott is Dr Evil’s son,
and he has a good heart. Out of kindness to the world, Scott introduced a simpler solution to each
of these bomb phases than Dr. Evil’s solution. Scott Evil’s solution successfully defuses the bomb,
but is only worth 1.5 achievement marks in phases 1 through 4, and 1.0 in phase 5. To obtain the
full marks for each phase you need to dig deeper into the assembly code. When your phase is
defused using Dr. Evil’s solution, the bomb will print an additional congratulatory message, as you
can see by examining bomb.c.
Strategy
It is not possible to attempt to defuse a bomb phase until the preceding phases have been defused,
so you have to work on the phases in sequence. However, once you have found Scott Evil’s defusion
string for a particular phase, then you can choose whether to work on the next phase or to continue
working on the current phase in order to achieve Dr. Evil’s solution. You might find it helpful to
move on to the next phase and then return later, when you are more experienced, to try to find Dr.
Evil’s solution to the earlier phase.
 Once you have a solution to a phase you should enter it into a text file that you
use when you run the bomb, as explained above. You can name the text file as a
parameter when you run the bomb inside the debugger. This will move through
the phases that you have already solved, leaving you ready to work on your
current phase.
Submission
There is nothing for you to submit explicitly. Every time you defuse the bomb, and every time the
bomb explodes, the event is recorded. These defusions and explosions are used to automatically
compute your mark. However you should keep any written notes and a copy of your solution file
just in case there is a need to verify your results.
You can keep track of your achievements by using the lab command to examine your marks for lab 2:
$ lab –m 2
The report is reasonably detailed but may take some time to appear because it is generated
automatically.
The bomb lab will close automatically on the due date. You can use the lab command for free
extensions.
Copyright © 2020 Macquarie University 7
Progress Marks
Automatic progress marks are awarded for defusing each of the first four bomb phases. Scott Evil’s
solution is sufficient to achieve the progress mark. The progress mark schedule is lenient, but you
should aim to be ahead of schedule, because the last phases are considerably more difficult, and
also more interesting!
Remember that you only need to work through the phases of a single bomb – you don’t need to
fetch a new bomb for each stage of this assignment.
The automatic progress mark schedule is shown by the command $ lab -d
The final deadline for this lab is in week 13, and is shown by the command $ lab -d
If you wish to claim a free extension for a progress mark, you must claim the extension before you
defuse the relevant bomb phase. Once the phase is defused, the server will register the progress
mark that is due in the future, and it will not be possible to extend the progress mark that is
overdue.
If you have grounds for special consideration and request an extension of a progress mark due date,
please also email the unit convenor. Extensions of progress marks can be tricky but we will do our
best to give you an appropriate extension if the disruption justifies one.
Progress marks are not linked to the particular bomb that you are working on, so if you request your
second bomb you don’t lose the progress marks that you previously earned. However, to gain
further progress marks you must solve later phases of either the first or second bomb. Before you
can work on the later phases of the second bomb, you have to solve its early phases, but you should
find it a lot easier to solve those phases in the second bomb because of all you have learned about
assembly and gdb when you were working on your first bomb.
Mastery Quiz
In week 13, we will offer a mastery quiz work 10 marks towards this assignment. The quiz will test
what you have learned about assembly and gdb. It will specifically test knowledge that is required
to complete the phases of the binary bomb. More details will be provided on iLearn closer to the
time of the quiz.
After the Lab Closes
After the lab closes, it will still be possible to run your bomb. Every defusion and explosion that you
cause after the lab closes will still be recorded, but it will not affect your mark unless you are given
an extension. If you claim a free extension, or receive an extension due to special consideration,
then all your bomb activity up to the new closing date will be counted towards your mark. For this
reason we recommend that you be as careful with your bomb after the closing date as you were
beforehand.
If you request an extension of the closing date, please also email the unit convenor. You can
continue to work on the lab as you are able, even before an extension is granted. As explained
above, every defusion and explosion will be recorded by the automarker, although your marking
report will not show your new work until an extension is granted, so you should keep your own
notes.
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If you wish to use a free extension for the closing date, you can minimise your risk by working on the
bomb lab after closing without claiming the extension. This only applies to an extension of the
closing date. You will need to keep your own notes of your defusions and explosions. If you achieve
a worthwhile improvement, then you can claim the free extension and then be rewarded with the
marks for the new work. However, be warned: Explosions take away marks, so if you lose more
through explosions than you gain through improved defusion results, your total mark could possibly
go down when you claim a free extension. Also, remember that it is not possible to claim or change
free extensions that would end at a time in the past – the end of your free extension must always be
in the future when you are claiming or changing it.
Hints (Please read this!)
There are many ways of defusing your bomb. You can examine it in great detail without ever running
the program, and figure out exactly what it does – rewriting the assembly as pseudo-C will be
helpful. This is a useful technique, but it not always easy to do. You can also run it under gdb, watch
what it does step by step, and use this information to defuse it. This is probably the fastest way of
defusing it.
 Using gdb you can step through the bomb. If you find a point at which it wants to
explode the bomb, you can look at registers and memory and determine what is
needed to avoid exploding the bomb at that point. Then, tracing through the
program code, you work out what input string you need to provide in order to not
explode the bomb at that point.
We do make one request, please do not use brute force! You could write a program that will try
every possible key to find the right one. But this is no good for several reasons:
• You will avoid learning about assembly and will miss out on learning debugging skills.
• You lose points every time you guess incorrectly and the bomb explodes.
• Every time you guess wrong, a message is sent to the bomb lab server. You could very
quickly saturate the network with these messages, and cause the system administrators to
revoke your computer access.
• We haven't told you how long the strings are, nor have we told you what characters are in
them. Even if you made the (incorrect) assumptions that they all are less than 80 characters
long and only contain letters, then you will have 2680 guesses for each phase. This will take a
very long time to run, and you will not get the answer before the assignment is due.
There are many tools which are designed to help you figure out both how programs work, and what
is wrong when they don't work. Below is a list of some of the tools you may find useful in analyzing
your bomb, and hints on how to use them. For more hints and help, see the Lab Notes section on
iLearn.
The Phases
The phases are in order of increasing difficulty. The file bomb.c contains some comments, which
even though they are written by Dr Evil, still provide some useful hints. Here are some additional
notes to help you get started with the early phases.
Phase 1 involves identifying particular characters that are required to be placed in particular
locations in the input string. Dr Evil has added a twist for his solution. The is_ok example given in
Copyright © 2020 Macquarie University 9
lectures and the is_yes example in the bomblab videos are designed to help you with this stage in
particular.
Phase 2 involves understanding the parameters of certain procedure calls. The procedure names are
similar to standard library routines and the procedures are equivalent to those routines. Again, Dr
Evil has added a twist to this puzzle.
Phase 3 is a puzzle about ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) instructions. For this puzzle, we suggest you
convert the assembly to pseudo-C, then simplify until you have a tidy C expression to solve.
Phase 4 is a demonstration of buffer overflow. Think carefully about how to achieve the desired
effect.
Tools
Gdb
The document “Bomb Defusing with gdb” provides a lot more information about how to use gdb to
defuse your bomb. Please read it! Here is a very brief introduction.
The GNU debugger is a command line debugger tool available on virtually every platform. You can
trace through a program line by line, examine memory and registers, look at both the source code
and assembly code (we are not giving you the source code for most of your bomb), set breakpoints,
set memory watch points, and write scripts.
The CS:APP3e web site http://csapp.cs.cmu.edu/3e/students.html has a very handy single-page
gdb summary that you can print out and use as a reference. Here are some other tips for using gdb.
• To keep the bomb from blowing up every time you type in a wrong input, you'll want to
learn how to set breakpoints. Even better, learn about .gdbinit to protect yourself
against typing mistakes.
• iLearn has lab notes that provide more information about gdb and helpful hints for using it.
• For online documentation, type “help” at the gdb command prompt, or type
“man gdb”, or “info gdb” at a Unix prompt.
objdump -t
This Unix command will print out the bomb's symbol table. The symbol table includes the names of
all functions and global variables in the bomb, the names of all the functions the bomb calls, and
their addresses. You may learn something by looking at the function names!
objdump -d
Use this Unix command to disassemble all of the code in the bomb. You can also just look at
individual functions. Reading the assembler code can tell you how the bomb works.
Although objdump -d gives you a lot of information, it doesn't tell you the whole story. Calls to
system-level functions are displayed in a cryptic form. For example, a call to sscanf might appear
as something like:
8048c36: e8 99 fc ff ff call 80488d4 <_init+0x1a0>
To determine that the call was to sscanf, you would need to disassemble within gdb. Gdb
recognises system calls, although the names appear somewhat strange in gdb.
strings
This utility will display the printable strings in your bomb.
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Documentation
Looking for a particular tool? How about documentation? iLearn contains some useful information in
the Support Notes section. Don't forget, the Unix commands apropos, man, and info are your
friends. In particular, man ascii might come in useful and info gas will give you more than
you ever wanted to know about the GNU Assembler. Also, the web may also be a treasure trove of
information. If you get stumped, feel free to ask general questions on the forum, or ask your
instructor for specific help.
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Index
academic integrity, 2
achievement mark, 4–5, 5
after lab closes, 6
brute force, 7
defusion, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Dr Evil, 1, 3, 4, 5
explosion, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7
extension, 5, 6
forums, 2
free extension, 5, 6
gdb, 2, 3, 6, 7
breakpoint, 4
run, 4
iLearn, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8
is_ok, 7
is_yes, 3, 7
lab closing, 1, 6
mastery quiz, 6
objdump, 8
phases, 3, 7
progress mark, 1, 3, 5–6
pseudo-C, 2, 6, 7
Scott Evil, 4, 5
second bomb, 3, 6
special consideration, 5, 6
strings, 8
submission, 5
text file, 4, 5
video, 1, 3, 7



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