c++代写-PHAS0100-Assignment 1
时间:2021-02-19
PHAS0100: Research Computing with C++
Assignment 1: Constructing a Small Research Project
Late Submission Policy: Please be aware of the UCL Late Submission Policy, which is here:
academic-manual/chapter-4/section-3.12

Extenuating Circumstances
The course tutors are not allowed to grant Extenuating Circumstances for late submission. You must
apply to your programme (Masters course, MRes, UG etc) organiser. If granted, your programme
organiser or programme administrator must email j.dobson@ucl.ac.uk confirming that Extenuating
Circumstances have been granted and providing a revised submission date.

Assignment Submission
For this coursework assignment, you must submit by uploading a single Zip format archive to Moodle.
You must use only the zip tool, not any other archiver, such as .tgz or .rar. Inside your zip archive, you
must have a single top-level folder, whose folder name is your student number, so that on running
unzip this folder appears. This top-level folder must contain all the parts of your solution. Inside the
top-level folder should be a git repository named PHAS0100Assignment1. All code, images, results
and documentation should be inside this git repository. You should git commit your work regularly as
the exercise progresses.

You should clone the following repository and use as the starting point for the coursework:
https://github.com/UCL/PHAS0100Assignment1.git

Due to the need to avoid plagiarism, do not use a public GitHub repository for your work - instead, use
git on your local disk (with git commit but not git push), and ensure the hidden .git folder is part of
your zipped archive as otherwise the git history is lost. We will be providing access to a private
GitHub classroom repository that you can use as remote as a backup option – there will be a moodle
announcement with details on this. It is important you do not push to a public GitHub repository as
pieces of identical (or suspiciously similar) work will both be treated as plagiarised. Whilst it is fine to
look up definitions and general documentation for C++/libraries online it is not acceptable to use code
taken from the internet or other sources or provided by someone else for the problem solutions. The
exception to this is the initial PHAS0100Assignment1 project that should be used as a starting point for
your project.
We recommend you use Visual Studio Code with the Ubuntu 20.04 docker image for development.
This is not a requirement but if you do use a different setup then you need to ensure that your code
compiles and runs on Ubuntu 20.04 and with g++ 9.3.0 (enforcing C++17) and CMake 3.16.3 as this is
the environment the markers will use to test the code.

Marks will be deducted for code that does not compile or run. Marks will also be deducted is code
poorly formatted. You can choose to follow your own formatting style but it must be applied
consistently. See the Google C++ style guide for a good set of conventions.

It is important that you follow the file/folder/executable structure given in the notes section of each
questions. This is because we will be automating basic checks of the submitted work so if you have
not followed the pre-defined structure those checks will fail and you will lose marks. For similar reason
you should make sure your unit tests are included when ctest is run by ensuring each new test file
you create has an appropriate add_test entry in PHAS0100/Testing/CMakeLists.txt

Preliminaries
The aim is to write a piece of software that can perform linear regression. While this is fairly
widespread in many libraries, especially in other languages such as Python, the aim here is to
demonstrate that you can produce a C++ project that can be run by other people, on their machines.
In class, we have learnt things like:
• Build setup using CMake 

• Unit testing 

• Error handling using exceptions 

• Avoiding raw pointers – either use STL containers, or smart pointers 

• Program to Interfaces 

• Dependency Injection
• Polymorphism 

and the aim here is to put this all together into a coherent project. 


Reporting Errors 

You can post questions to the Moodle Discussion channel, if you believe that there is a problem with
the example CMake code, or the build process in general. To make error reporting useful, you should
include in your description of the error: error messages, operating system version, compiler version,
and an exact sequence of steps to reproduce the error. Questions regarding the clarity of the
instructions are allowed, but obvious “Please tell me the answer” type questions will be ignored.

Important: 
Read all these instructions before starting coding. In particular, some marks are awarded
for a reasonable git history (as described in Part B), that should show what you were thinking as you
developed.

Part A: Linear Regression App (55 marks)
The first part of this coursework is to get you to setup the project. These instructions will guide you
through.

1. Please read chapter 4 of the “Hands on Machine Learning” that covers linear regression and
provides background to the equations used in this assignment. The PDF is on Moodle in the
Coursework topic.
[0 marks]

2. Data can come from many places, e.g. file, network, or randomly generated. So, we first
define an interface of what we expect from our data provider. In class we learnt: “program to
interfaces”, so:
a. Create a header file, containing a pure virtual interface class, with a method
equivalent to:

virtual std::vector > GetData() = 0; 


The data returned should be a vector of X, y pairs, where X is the observed feature
value, and y is the target/label/predicted value. 


b. Ensure the file is included in CMakeLists.txt, so that your build environment will know
it exists. 


c. Create a header and implementation file of a new concrete (i.e. not abstract) class
that implements this interface. At first, just write an empty method with the signature
above. 


d. Create a unit test file, that will instantiate an instance of your new concrete class.

e. Check that you can compile and run the test. 


Notes: use the following folder/file structure within PHAS0100Assignment1:

// Pure abstract Interface, with I in the file name
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgDataCreatorI.h

// Concrete implementation
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgLinearDataCreator.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgLinearDataCreator.cpp

// Unit tests
PHAS0100Assignment1/Testing/lrgLeastSquaresSolverTests.cpp

[1 mark for each a-e, 5 marks total]

3. Now we implement the class to generate some data. The idea is that if we create some fake
data, we know what the answer should be.
a. In the class that you created as part of 2c, implement a function that generates data
that fits the linear model: 
 = ! + " +
b. In class we learnt the RAII pattern and dependency injection pattern, rather than using
setters/getters. Ensure that parameters for your generator are passed in via
constructor. 

c. Write a specific unit test that checks: 

i. The number of returned items is correct
ii. The distribution of the returned items is correct.

Hints: Use STL random number generators:
http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/random/ For unit testing, it’s sufficient for this
exercise to test that a random sequence of numbers has the correct mean value.

[3 + 2 + 5, 10 marks total]

4. Similar to part 2, create a pure abstract interface for the solver, and a concrete
implementation. Notice how we have separated the thing that generates or provides data from
the thing that provides a solution.
a. Create a header file, containing a pure virtual method to fit data to a model. For this
simple exercise, we know that the model only requires 2 parameters, " and !, so the
returned value can be a pair of doubles representing " and !. 


i.e. equivalent to:

std::pair FitData(std::vector >)



b. Ensure the header file is included in your CMakeLists.txt 


c. Create a header and implementation file of a new concrete (i.e. not abstract) class
that implements this interface. At first, just write an empty method. 


d. For simplicity re-use the unit test file created in section2d. (0 marks) 


e. Check you can compile and run the test. 


f. At this point, consider using typedef’s to simplify your code, as lots of template
brackets get ugly (see https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/language/typedef). 


Notes: use the following folder/file structure:
// Pure abstract interface with I at the end of the file name.
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgLinearModelSolverStrategyI.h

// Concrete implementation
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgNormalEquationSolverStrategy.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgNormalEquationSolverStrategy.cpp

// Same unit test file.
PHAS0100Assignment1/Testing/lrgLeastSquaresSolverTests.cpp
[1 mark for each of a,b,c,e,f, 5 marks total]
5. Implement a first solver, using Normal Equations. See equation 4-4 in “Hands on Machine
Learning” and the Notations section in Chapter 2. This would be placed in the concrete class
created in part 4c.


Hints:
This project includes Eigen.
Copy data from STL arrays to Eigen, and solve. Don’t
worry about performance.
[Implementation 5 marks, Unit tests 5 marks.
Both at markers discretion, 10 marks total]


6. Implement a second solver. As mentioned in class the point here is to demonstrate how 2
methods can co-exist in a project, and the project should be able to run both of them.
a. Create a new solver using Gradient Descent.

b. Ensure the parameters are all adjustable, by whoever is using the class (see
Dependency Injection covered in lecture 4).

Notes: use the following folder/file structure:
// Another concrete implementation of lrgLinearModelSolverStrategyI.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgGradientDescentSolverStrategy.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgGradientDescentSolverStrategy.cpp
Again, re-using the same, single unit test file.
[Implementation 5 marks, Unit tests 5 marks.
Both at markers discretion, 10 marks total]
7. Now, in reality, you would be processing data produced by some scientific experiment. The
idea here is to now create another concrete implementation of the interface defined in section
2a, where instead of randomly generated data, data is read in from a text file.
a. Create a new header and cpp file, of a concrete class that implements your interface
containing the GetData() method. 

b. Implement the class, using STL funtions to read data from a plain text file. Assume 2
values per line, representing X and y, each space separated. 

c. Write unit tests to ensure you can read TestData1.txt and TestData2.txt (provided) 


Notes: use the following folder/file structure:

// Another concrete implementation of lrgDataCreatorI.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgFileLoaderDataCreator.h
PHAS0100Assignment1/Code/Lib/lrgFileLoaderDataCreator.cpp

[1 + 3 + 1 = 5 marks in total]

8. Now you would plug it all together, and if the unit tests are working, you should be able to use
the package to process experimental data (TestData1.txt and TestData2.txt)
a. Create a command line app that can be run as ./bin/lrgFitDataApp from the
build directory.

b. The command line app should print a useful help message to tell the user what
arguments to use. Normally the -h or --help switch is used here. 


c. With zero command line arguments, the program should not crash, and should
respond with the help message 


b. The distribution of the returned items is correct.

Hints:
Use STL random number generators: http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/random/
For unit testing, it’s sufficient for this exercise to test that a random sequence of
numbers has the correct mean value.

[3 + 2 + 5, 10 marks total]


4. Similar to part 2, create a pure abstract interface for the solver, and a concrete
implementation. Notice how we have separated the thing that generates or provides data
from the thing that provides a solution.

a) Create a header file, containing a pure virtual method to fit data to a model. For this
simple exercise, we know that the model only requires 2 parameters, q0 and q1, so the
returned value can be a pair of doubles representing q0 and q1.


i.e. equivalent to:

std::pair FitData(std::vector > )


b) Ensure the header file is included in your CMakeLists.txt

c) Create a header and implementation file of a new concrete (i.e. not abstract) class that
implements this interface. At first, just write an empty method.

d) For simplicity re-use the unit test file created in section2d. (0 marks)

e) Check you can compile and run the test.

f) At this point, consider using typedef’s to simplify your code, as lots of template
brackets get ugly.

Hints: Matt’s code was based on project: MPHY0022CW1 and the folder / file structure was:

// Pure abstract interface with I at the end of the file name.
MPHY0022CW1/Code/Lib/mphyLinearModelSolverStrategyI.h

// Concrete implemntation
MPHY0022CW1/Code/Lib/mphyNormalEquationSolverStrategy.h
MPHY0022CW1/Code/Lib/mphyNormalEquationSolverStrategy.cpp

// Same unit test file.
MPHY0022CW1/Testing/mphyLeastSquaresSolverTests.cpp

[1 mark for each of a,b,c,e,f, 5 marks total]

5. Implement a first solver, using Normal Equations. See equation 4-4 in “Hands on Machine
Learning”. This would be placed in the concrete class created in part 4c.


d. The command line app should check for the right number of arguments and respond
correctly. 


e. The command line app should check if a file was read correctly, and throw exceptions
if not. 


f. The aim is to provide to the user BOTH methods of solving the least squares
regression problem. So, you should provide a command line argument that enables
you to switch methods. And both methods should give you approximately the same
answer. 


g. The top-level program should catch all exceptions and exit gracefully.


Hints:

You can use basic C++ command line parsing:
http://www.cplusplus.com/articles/DEN36Up4/
Or you could try integrating a command line parser such as:
https://github.com/CLIUtils/CLI11(which is header only)

[1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 10 marks total]


Part B: Additional Considerations (15 marks)

9. Application of Object Oriented design principles such as abstraction and encapsulation,
inheritance and polymorphism.
[At markers discretion, 5 marks]

10. Given = ! + "then TestData1.txt should give " = 3 and ! = 2, and TestData2.txt
should give " = 2 and ! = 3. Provide some evidence that you have this. E.g. screenshot of
a running command line program.
[4 marks]

11. Nice git commit log. Effective commenting.
[3 marks]

12. Update the front page README.md to give clear build instructions, and instructions for use.

[3 marks]


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